Bab Sagheer; Graveyard
Goristane Gharibaan (commonly called as Babus-Sagheer). This is a cemetery in Damascus which has following graves:
– Umme Salma. Wife of Holy Prophet S.A.W.W.
– Umme Habiba. Wife of Holy Prophet S.A.W.W.
– Umme Kulthum (daughter of Imam Ali A.S.). Go downstairs to see the grave.
– Bibi Rukayya (commonly known as Bibi Sakina’s grave). Go downstairs.
– Bibi Fatemah Sughra – daughter of 3rd Imam. Go downstairs to see the grave.
– Bibi Fizza – kaniz of Bibi Fatemah A.S.
– Abdullah bin Jafar-e-Tayyar (Bibi Zainab’s husband).
– Bilal (Prophet’s Muazzin).
– Maimoona – daughter of Imam Hassan A.S.
– Hamida – daughter of H. Muslim.
– Asma – wife of Jafar-e-Tayyar.
– Abdullah – son of 4th Imam.
– Abdullah – son of 6th Imam.
Opposite the cemetery there is a Zari where the heads of Shohada-e-Kerbala were kept and behind it there is a mosque where 4th Imam prayed.
Mount Qasioun or Jabal Qasioun is a mountain overlooking the city of Damascus, Syria. It has a range of restaurants, from which the whole city can be viewed. As the city has expanded over the years, some districts have been established on the foot of the mountain. Its highest point is 1,151 metres (3,776 ft.).
The mountain has been heavily entrenched with Syrian government forces since the start of the Syrian civil was as it is a strategic site in the battle for the outskirts of Damascus.
It is mentioned however Medieval Arab history books as having been the place where Qabil (Cain) killed Habil (Abel). According to Sunni Muslims, Mount Qasioun is the site of the mihrabs(prayer niches) of the 40 arch-saints known as Abdal, who are said to pray the night vigil prayers every night. A small mosque has been built over the Cave of Blood containing these mihrabs.
On another flank of the same mountain is yet another cave, which has come down in local legend as being the cave of seven sleepers, mentioned in early Christian sources, as well as in the Quran, where they are known as Ashab al-kahf (companions of the cave).
Tomb of Ibn al-Arabi
Place: Damascus, Syria
Construction date: 1516-1517: Ottoman restoration of the tomb.
The tomb of the mystic Ibn al-Arabi (Murcia, 1165-Damascus, 1240) is situated in the Syrian Capital, in a quarter of the former suburb of Salihiyya which bears his name ‘Muhyi al-Din’. It was restored in 1516 to 1517 and adjoins a mosque and public refectory, constructed at the command of Ottoman Sultan, Selim 1 (1512-1520), who, following his conquest of Syria, was returning from his victorious campaigns against the Maluks of Egypt. This complex constitutes the first architectural imprint of Ottoman domination over Syria, and the only example of Ottoman architecture to be built for two decades. The next Ottoman construction, the Hisrev Pacha Complex, was built in Aleppo in 1531-1534.
Ibn al-Arabi was born in Andelusia and following a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1194, spent the remainder of his life in Seljuk Anatolia and then from 1230 in Damascus, under Ayyubid protection. This prolific writer, whose teachings were carried as far as India by his disciples, was thought to have predicted Selim I s conquest of Syria and Egypt.
Abdullah Fa’izi Ad-Daghestani
Born: Dec. 14, 1891
Died: Sep. 30, 1973 (aged 81) Damascus, Syria
Commonly known as Sheikh Abdullah, was a Russian Sufi sheikh of the Naqshbandi-Huqqani Sufi order.
He was born in the Caucasian region of Daghestan; then colony of Russia Empire, in 1891. Both his father and elder brother were medical doctors, the latter being a Surgeon in the Imperial Russian Army. Sheikh Abdullah was raised and trained by his maternal uncle, sheikh Sharafuddin Daghestani (1857-1936).
Move to Ottoman, Turkey
In the late 1890s, sheikh Abdullah’s family emigrated to the Ottoman Empire, following his uncle Sheikh Sharafuddin who had emigrated in the 1870s. They settled in the north western Anatolian city of Bursa and after a year moved to the village Rasadiye, now known as Guneykoy, in Yalova province, Turkey. The new village was established on land granted by the Sultan and was populated by Daghestani refugees affected by the war of 93 and the uprising against the Russian Empire. Shortly thereafter, Sheikh Abdullah’s father died, and at the age of 15 he married a Daghestani named Halima.
Training in Sufiism
In 1910, after merely six months of marriage, sheikh Sharafuddin ordered Abdullah into sacred seclusion (khalwat) for five years. This practice included severe austerities that were intended to raise his spiritual rank. When Abdullah returned to secular life the Ottoman Empire was embroiled in the First World War. Along with many young men of his village, Abdullah entered military service and took part in the Battle of Gallipoli. During a fire fight he was severely wounded by enemy fire.
Wounded by enemy fire
In 1921, Abdullah was instructed by sheikh Sharafuddin to enter another five years’ seclusion. He completed this and wasthen granted a license, or ijaza, to be a master, or sheikh, inthe Naqshbandi order.
Interlude in Egypt
Because of anti-Sufi regulations in the new Turkish Republic, Sheikh Abdullah began to contemplate leaving the country. After the death of sheikh Sharafuddin in 1936, a delegation came to Resadiye from King Farouk to pay their condolences, as he had many followers in Egypt.
Life in Syria
Following his daughter’s divorce in Egypt, Sheikh Abdullah and his family then moved to Syria where he would remain for the rest of his life. He resided for a time in Aleppo, moved to Homs, and then finally to Damascus near the tomb of Saint Sa’d ad-Din Jibawi. There he established the first tekke for his branch of the Naqshbandi order.
In 1943, he moved to a house on Jabal Qasioun mountain. The house was bought by his first Syrian Murid and later one of his deputies in the Sufi order, Sheikh Hussain Ifrini. This house is now the site of his burial shrine and its adjoining mosque.
Sheikh Abdullah died on Sep 30, 1973 in Damascus. His grave and burial shrine is in Damascus, Syria at the site of his former home and mosque on Jabal Qasioun mountain.
Among his notable followers were the Sufi sheikh’s Nazim al-Haqqani, Adil Merlet, Husayn Ifrini, Hisham Kabbani, Adnan Kabbani. One of his successors, Sheikh Nazim, went on to spread this branch of Naqshbandi. Sufi order to many countries in the world and was considered among the world’s most influential Muslims.
Dihyah bin Khalifah al-Kalbi, sometimes spelled as Dahyah, was the envoy who delivered the Holy Prophet’s message to Roman Emperor Heraclius.
A hadith attributed to Abu Uthman reports:
I got the news that Gabriel came to the Prophet while um Salama was present. Gabriel started talking to the Prophet and then left. The Prophet said to Um Salama, “Do you know, who it was?” She replied, “It was Dihyah ( a handsome person amongst the companions of the Prophet. Later on Um Salama said: “By Allah! I thought he was none but Dihyah, till I heard the Prophet talking about Gabriel in his sermon”.
The Umayyad mosque, recognized: al-Jami al- Umavi; also known as the Great Mosque of Damascus, located in the old city of Damascus, is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world. The mosque is also important in Islam because of its historical and eschatological reports and events associated with the mosque.
After one Muslim conquest of Damascus in 634, the mosque was built on the site of a Christian basilica dedicated to John the Baptist, honored as a Prophet by Christians and Muslims. A legend dating to the sixth century holds that the building contains the head of John the Baptist. Two shrines commemorating Hussain ibn Ali (Maqam al Hussain) whose martyrdom is frequently compared to that of John the Baptist and Jesus Christ, exists within the building premises. The mausoleum containing the tomb of Salah ad-Din stands in a small garden adjoining the north walls of the mosque.
The Fatimids of Egypt, who adhered to Ismaili / Bohri Shia Islam conquered Damascus in 970, but few recorded improvements of the mosque were undertaken by the new rulers. The Sunni Muslim Seljuk Turks gained control of the city in 1078 and restored the nominal rule of the Abbasid Caliphate.
The Mongols, under the leadership of Kitbuqa, in alliance with Crusader forces, captured Damascus from the Ayyubids in 1260.
In 1285, the Sunni Muslim Scholar ibn Taymiyya started teaching Quran exegesis in the mosque. When the II-Khan Mongols under Ghizan invaded the city in 1300. Ibn Taymiyya preached Jihad, urging the citizens of Damascus in 1400. He ordered the burning of the city on March 17, 1401, and the fire ravaged the Umayyad mosque.
The Ottomans under Selim I conquered Damascus from the Mamluks in 1516. Prominent Sufi scholar Abd al Ghanni al-Nabulsi taught regularly at the Umayyad mosque in 1661.
In 1990s, Mohammed Burhan Uddin constructed a Zarih of the martyrs of the Battle of Karbala whose heads were brought to the mosque after Yazid army killed Imam Hussain and his small army of 72. His family was captured and brought here including the daughter of Imam Ali a.s. Syeda Zainab, Imam Zainul Abedeen and all female members of Holy Household and children. In 2001, Pope John Paul II visited the mosque primarily to visit the relics of John the Baptist. It was the first time a pope paid a visit to the mosque. The family of the Holy Prophet was made to walk here or on camels from Iraq, following the Battle of Karbala. Furthermore, it was the place where they were imprisoned for 60 days or one year.
South Wing (main hall):
- Shrine of John the Baptist (Arabic-Yahya)- According to Al-Suyuti, Ibrahim stated that since the creation of the world, the Heavens and the Earth wept only for two people: Nabi Yahya and Imam Hussain Ibn Ali, the grandson of the Prophet saww. Tafseer Durre Mansur, vol. 6, p 30-31 and Tafseer ibn katheer, vol. 9, p163 published in Egypt.
- A white pulpit- Marks the place where Ali ibn Hussain Zainul Abedeen addressed the court of Yazid after being brought from Karbala. Nafasul Mahmoon p.381. It is narrated that when Imam Zainul Abedeen started the speech, Yazid ordered Azan reciters to interrupt his speech. Till today that tradition of 7 people giving Azan together is not found in the world except in this mosque.
- Raised floor (in front of the Pulpit)-marks the location where all the ladies and children (the Holy Prophets household were brought without veil (chadhar) and made to stand in the presence of Yazid and his 700 guests in the courtyard.
- Wooden balcony (directly opposite the raised floor)-marks the location where Yazid sat in the court.
- A prayer rug and mihrab encased in a glass cubicle-marks the place where Ali ibn Hussain Zayn ul Abedeen used to pray while imprisoned in the castle after the Battle of Karbala.
- A metallic, cuboidal in the wall- Marks the place where the head of Imam Hussain ibn Ali was kept for display by Yazid.
- A Zarih marks the place where all other heads of those who fell in Karbala were kept within the mosque.
Nabi Habeel Mosque
Nabi Habeel mosque, Romanized: Masjid An-Nabi Habil, is a shrine dedicated to Habeel, located on the west mountains of Damascus, near the Zabadani valley, overlooking the villages of the Barada river (Wadi Barada), in Syria, the Levant.
This mosque is believed to contain the grave of Abel (Arabic Habil) the son of Adam, as believed by Muslims, who are frequent visitors of this mosque for ziyarat. The mosque was built by Ottomon Wali Ahmed Pasha in 1599, and it is said to have 40 mihrabs. As the story goes, Abel was killed by his brother Cain (Arabic: Qabil), which is known to be the first homicide of mankind.
Inside the mosque is a 23 ft. (7.0 m) longsarcophagus covered with green silk tapestry inscribed with verses from the Quran, with some locals saying that this was the size of the world’s builders, including Abel. The mosque is believed to be a ritual site for the Druze.
You will need your passport and visa to show to check point.
Sayyidah Zainab Mosque
Sayyidah Zainab Mosque is a mosque and grave of Zainab, the daughter of Ali and Fatima located in the city of Sayyidah Zainab, in the southern suburbs of Damascus, Syria.
The shrine is an example of Shia-Persian architecture and the dome is gold-leafed. The shrine mosque can accommodate more than 1,300 people in it and a further 150 in the attached courtyards. The doors of the shrine made of pure gold with mirror works on the roof and walls. The two tall minarets of the shrine are an excellent example of the architecture.
The shrine is sometimes seen by some as a place of miracles. Ali Shariati the Iranian ideologue of the Islamic Revolution of 1979, had wished before his death to be buried in the yard of Zainab bint Ali a.s. It is found within the compound.
Sayyidah Ruqayya Mosque
Sayyidah Ruqayya mosque is located in Damascus, Syria and contains the grave of Sukaina bint Hassan, also known as Ruqayyah, the young daughter of Imam Hussain ibn Ali a.s.
According to Shia Islamic narrations that are commemorated every year on the occasion of Ashura, after enduring the Battle of Karbala and the torturous journey to Damascus from Karbala in 61 AH, Sukaina died at the age of four in Yazid’s prison, where her body was originally buried. Years later, however, upon the flooding of her grave site, her grave was reopened and the body was moved to the site where the masjid now stands.
The mosque was built around the mausoleum in 1985 and exhibits a modern version of Iranian architecture, with substantial amount of mirror and gold work. There is a small mosque area adjoining the shrine distance from the Umayyad mosque and the Al-hamidyah Souq (Bazar) in central Damascus.
Abu Muslim al-Khawlani
Abu Muslim al-Khawlani (died 684) was a well-known tabi’I (plural, taba’een) and a prominent figure in Damascus, Syria. He was one of the “Eight Ascetics”, who also included Amir ibn Abd al Qays, Uways al-Qarani, Al Rabi ibn khuthaym, al-Aswad ibn Yazid, Masruq ibn al-Ajda, Sufyan al-Thawrt ibn Said and Hasan al-Basri.
Stories of His Life
It is recorded by Sheikh Aw’id Abdullah al-Qami that Al Aswad al Ansi, a man in Yemen who claimed Prophet hood, asked Abu Muslim to believe in him and testify that he is a messenger. Abu Muslim told him: “I can’t hear anything.” Al Aswad ul Ansi prepared firewood and threw him in fire. Abu Muslim said: “Hasbuna Llah wa ni mal wakeel (Allah is sufficient for us and he is the best protector.”- the words that Muslims believe the Prophet Ibrahim said when he was thrown in fire, so Allah made the fire cool and safe for him.
Born: 140 AH-757 AD Wasit or Darayya
Died: 205 AH-820 AD, Buried in Darayya.
Abu Sulayman al-Darani was an ascetic sage of the 2nd-3rd / 8th-9th century and one of the earliest theoreticians of formal mysticism in Islam. He was held in honor by the Sufis and was called the ‘sweet Basil of Hearts’ (Rayhan al Qulub). He is distinguished by his austerities and acts of self-mortification. He spoke in subtle terms concerning the practice of devotion.
Name: Abd al-Rahman b. Ahmad or Abd al Rahman b. Atiyya al-Ansari al-Darani. He was called al-Ansari due to his connection with the Banu Anas ibn Malik, a tribe from Yemen.
Bilal ibn Rabah
Bilal ibn Rabah (580-640 AD) was one of the most trusted and loyal sahabah (companion) of the Holy Prophet saww. He was born in Mecca and is considered to have been the first Mu’azzin, chosen by Holy Prophet himself. He was a former slave and was known for his voice with which he called people to their prayers. He died in 640 AD, at the age of 60 (or just over 60 in Hijri lunar years).
Birth and early life
Bilal was born in Mecca in Hejaz in the year 580. His father Rabah was an Arab slave for the clan of Banu Junah which his mother, Hamamah, was allegedly a former princess of Abyssinia, who was captured after the event of Amul Fill (the attempt to destroy the Ka’ba) and put into slavery. Being born into slavery, Bilal had no other option but to work for his master, Umayyah ibn Khalaf. Through hard work, Bilal became recognized as a good slave and was entrusted with the keys to the Idols of Arabia. However, racism and sociopolitical statutes of Arabia prevented Bilal from achieving a lofty position in society.
Conversion to Islam
When Holy Prophet announced his prophet hood and started to preach the message of Islam, Bilal renounced idol worship, becoming one of the earliest converts to the faith.
Persecution of Bilal
When Bilal slave master, Umayyah ibn Khalaf, found out, he began to torture Bilal. At the instigation of Abu Jahl, Umayyah bound Bilal and had him dragged around Mecca as children mocked him. Bilal refused to renounce Islam, instead repeating “Ahad Ahad” (God is absolute /one). Incensed at Bilal’s refusal, Umayyah ordered that Bilal be whipped and beaten. Bilal remained firm in belief and continued to say Ahad Ahad.
News of the persecution of Bilal reached the Holy Prophet saww. Holy Prophet sent close person to negotiate for the emancipation of Bilal, who mammitted him after either purchasing him or exchanging him for a non-Muslim slave.
Bilal in Madina
In the newly formed state of Madina, Bilal had become a prominent contributing member of the Muslim society taking on important roles.
Holy Prophet chose Bilal as the first Mu’azzin (reciter of Adhan).
After Holy Prophet
After Holy Prophet saww died in 632 AD, Bilal was one of the people who did not give Bay’ah to Abu Bakr. It is documented when Bilal did not give Bay’ah to Abu Bakr, Umar ibn Al Khattab grabbed Bilal by his clothes and asked, Is this the reward of Abu Bakr who helped you? His reply was: “I am not going to pay allegiance to a person who the messenger of God had not appointed as his Caliph”.
Being exiled from Madina by Umar and Abu Bakr, Bilal migrated to Syria.
He died in Damascus in 17 or 18 AH, but some say 20 AH or even 21 AH. When he was just over sixty years old.
In 1874, Edward Wilmot Blyden, a former slave of African descent wrote: “The eloquent Adhan or call to prayer, which to this day summons at the same hours, millions of the human race to their devotions, was first uttered by a Negro, Bilal by name, who Holy Prophet appointed the first Mu’azzin”.
Abu Darda al-Ansari d. 32 AH/652 CE, was a companion of Holy Prophet saww. He was the husband of fellow companion Umm al Darda al Kubra.
Abu Darda was a trader in Madina and belonged to the al-Harith clan of the Banu Khazraj tribe. He converted to Islam after the Battle of Badr. He served as a governor in Syria during the Caliph Uthman reign. He died in Damascus before the assassination of the third caliph Uthman.
A hadith transmitted by him states that Holy Prophet saww enjoined three things: to fast three days every month, to offer the witr salat before sleep, and to offer two rakat Sunnah of fajr.
Sheikh Badruddin al Hassani 1850-1935
His Early Life
Mohammed Badr al din b. Yusuf al-Marakishi al-Sibti al-Baybani al-Damishqi al Hassani was born to parents of righteousness from Morocco, Maliki in fiqh and Qadri in Tariqa. His father went to Egypt where he obtained a degree from Al Azhar university. Yusuf Badruddin settled in Damascus where he taught and married A’isha bint Ibrahim al-Kuzbari.
She only had two children: Badr al Din and his younger brother Ahmad Baha al-din who would grow up to be a prominent sheikh of the Naqshbandi order in Damascus.
After receiving this Ijaza, he began to teach grammar and morphology at the Umayyad mosque. Shortly, thereafter, he abandoned teaching classes and went into a seclusion that lasted approx. ten years.
Ammar b. Yasir
Ammar b. Yasir (d.37/657) was an early companion of the Holy Prophet and among the first people to become Muslim. His family was brutally tortured for believing in the Prophet saww and this resulted in his parents’ martyrdom. Ammar b. Yasir had the teknonym of Abu Yaqzan.
Ammar, along with Salman, Miqdad, and Abu Dhar, is considered to be one of the first Shia. He was among those few Muslims who refused to pay allegiance to Abu Bakr. In one incident after criticizing the third caliph for unlawful spending from the public treasury, the caliph kicked him so badly that he fell unconscious. The caliph planned to banish him but then withdrew due to Imam Ali’s mediation.
Holy Prophet saww told Ammar that he would be martyred by a group of rebels. He was over 90 years old when he fought in the Battle of Siffin and was martyred by army of Mu’awiya bin Abu Sufyan.
He was ally of Banu Makhzum and his lineage goes back to Anas b. Malik’s family, a Qahtani tribe residing in Yemen. His father moved to Mecca when he was young. He resided there and allied with Abu Hudhaifa from Banu Makhzum.
At the time of the Prophet
Ammar, his brother Abd Allah, his father Yasir, his mother Sumayya, Bilal, Khabbab b. Aratt, Suhayb b. Sinan were all severly tortured by the Quraysh for accepting Islam. Sumayya and Yasir died under these tortures and are considered to be the first martyrs of Islam.
One day Ammar went to the Prophet and said, “They did not stop torturing me until I said what they wanted”. (That is until he took the names of their gods and talked badly about the Prophet saww. The Prophet asked him: “What do you have in your heart? He answered: “I am confident upon my faith and calm”. The Prophet saww told him, “so if they again ask you to say the same, you say so”. The following verse was then revealed to the Holy Prophet to approve of Ammar’s deed:
“Whoever renounces faith in Allah after affirming his faith-barring someone who is compelled while his heart is at rest in faith” (16:106).
Ammar accompanied the Holy Prophet when he migrated to Madina, and constructed the foundation of the Quba Mosque, the first mosque built in Islam. He was among close companions of the Holy Prophet in Madina and participated in all ghazwas.
Ibn Abd al-Barr has quoted from Anas b. Malik that the Holy Prophet (saww) said: “The Paradise is very anxious to embrace Ali a.s., Ammar Yasir, Salman Mohammadi and Abu Dhar”.
In the period of Caliphs
In the period of Umar al Khattab, he was appointed as the ruler of Kufa and the commander of the Muslim Army there. The Battle of Nahawand occurred during his commandership. In this battle, some areas of Iran were conquered. However, he was ousted from his position after a while. The reason for his removal is not explicitly mentioned in historical sources. On some accounts, he was ousted because people were dissatisfied with his performance and had asked Umar to remove him from the position. The reason for such protests is not clearly mentioned. According to some reports, people objected to his weakness and his ignorance of politics.
In the period of third caliph, serious quarrels happened between him and Ammar. In one such case, “Ammar protested the exile of Abu Dhar to Rabadha. Ammar was battered at the order of Uthman. Uthman intended to exile ‘Ammar from Madina’, but he changed his mind after protests by Banu Makhzum and Imam Ali a.s.
According to other reports, Ammar was battered when he and other people of Kufa objected to corruptions and wine drinking by Walid b. Uqba who was appointed by Uthman as the ruler of Kufa. According to a different account, Ammar was battered when he objected to the way Uthman distributed the treasury (Bayt ul Mal) among people and criticized his remarks that he had the full authority over how to distribute the treasury. During the riots against Uthman, Ammar accompanied protestors. He joined the protestors in Egypt and in Madina, he joined people who seized “‘Uthman’s residence”.
In the period of Imam Ali Caliphate
Ammar was an advocate of Imam Ali’s caliphate. When Umar died and the six member council was held to select the caliph, he talked with Abd al Rahman b. Awf and recommended him to choose Ali as the caliph in order to prevent divisions among people. When Uthman was killed, Ammar was one of the people who visited others to pledge their allegiance to Ali a.s.
During the Caliphate of Imam Ali Ammar attended battles of Jamal and Siffin. In the Battle of Jamal, he was the commander of left army of Imam Ali. On the third day of the Battle of Siffin, he was also the commander of Imam Ali’s army.
Ammar’s martyrdom in the Battle of Siffin by the army of Mu’awiya b. Abu Sufyan was considered as a factor to reproach people and prove the rightness of Imam Ali in the battle. It was because of the well-known hadith from the Holy Prophet according to which Ammar’s killers are rebels or baghi (that is people who do not obey the legitimate Imam. Ibn al Barr takes the hadith to be Mutawatir and one of the most reliable hadiths.
Ammar’s burial place
Ammar was buried where he was martyred which is located today in the Raqqa province in Syria. In recent years, a big, magnificent mausoleum is being built by the Islamic republic of Iran over his grave. It contains the graves of some martyrs of Siffin, including Ammar b. Yasir, Uways al-Qarani and Ubbay b. Qays.
Demolition of his Tomb
On 21st Ramadhan 1434 AH (28 July 2013), Takfiri groups in Syria who had taken control of Raqqa province, demolished the tomb of Ammar b. Yasir and Uways al Qarani.
Born: 594 CE
Died: 3 Rajab 36 Hijri Dec 656 CE
Uwais’s ibn Amir ibn Jaz ibn Malik al-Qarani, was a Muslim from Yemen who lived during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet saww. His burial place is Raqqa, Syria.
Uwais’s father, Amir was a strong believer in Islam. He died when Uwais was still young. His mother raised him, and therefore, he was very grateful to her. He never met Holy Prophet even though he lived in same era. Therefore, he was in the class of Tabiun. About Uwais, Holy Prophet said that: Uwais is the best for his good deeds and for his love for Allah amongst all Tabiun.
Martyrdom in the battle of Siffin
In 657 CE, Uwais fought on the side of Ali ibn Abi Talib against Mu’awiya Abu Sufyan in the Battle of Siffin. As reported by Ibn Battuta, Uwais was killed in this battle.
Born: Muharram 631 AH/OCT 1233 Nawa
Died: 24 Rajab 676 AH 21 DEC 1277 age 45 Nawa
Abu Zakariyya Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi 1233-1277, popularly shafiite jurist and hadith scholar. He authored numerous and lengthy works ranging from Hadith to theology, biography and jurisprudence. Al-Nawawi never married.
He was born at Nawa near Damascus, Syria. As with Arabic and other sematic languages, the last part of his name refers to his hometown. He had no academic or scholarly atmosphere and there were no religious academies or institutes where one could earn excellence in religious academies or institutes where one could earn excellence in religious learning, so his father took him to Damascus, which was considered the center of learning, so his father took him to Damascus, which was considered the center of learning and scholarship, and the students from far and wide gathered there for schooling. During that period, there were more than three hundred institutes, colleges and universities in Damascus. Imam Nawawi joined madrasah Rawahiyah which was affiliated with the Umavi university.
Life as a scholar
He studied in Damascus from the age of 18 and after making the pilgrimage in 1253, he settled there as a private scholar.
Death and legacy
He died at Nawa at the relatively young age of 44.
Destruction of tomb
In 2015, during the ongoing Syrian civil war, his tomb was demolished by rebels.
Khalid ibn al Walid
Died: 642 Madina or Hums
Khalid ibn al Walid ibn al-Mughira al- Makhzumi, was member Banu Makhzum of Quraysh who had rivalries with Banu Hashem. He was a well-knowncommander in early years of Islam who is known among Sunni Muslims as Sayf Allah (The sword of Allah). Before he converted to Islam, Khalid had fought against Muslims in the battle of Badr, Uhud, Khandaq. Khalid b. Walid converted to Islam before the conquest of Mecca. He attended the battle of Mu’ta and the conquest of Mecca. Khalid was also among those who ran away in the battle Hunayn.
The most famous historical report on Khalid b. Walid is about his behavior toward Malik b. Nuwayra, a companion of the Holy Prophet. Although Malik b. Nuwayra, his tribe and Banu Tamim tribe were Muslims, they were captured as slaves by Khalid. Then he ordered to kill Malik b. Nuwayra and his tribe members and afterward he committed adultery with Malik’s wife (then widow) in that night. Khalid b. Walid secretly acted against Imam Ali which brought condemnations to him because of his deeds.
Before converting to Islam
In the third year after Hijra, Khalid was the leader of cavalries of the night flank of their army in the battle of Uhud. Because of the mistakes made by some Muslim soldiers in guarding a path, Khalid managed to defeat Muslims.
After converting to Islam
The Eight year after Hijrah
The Battle of Mu’ta
Some months after converting t Islam, Khalid b. Walid attend this battle. Mu’ta in Jumad 1 (8/629). He was assigned in charge of Muslims army after the martyrdom of leaders of army. He managed to bring the remaining Muslims soldiers to Madina.
In the beginning of shawwal in 8/630 Holy Prophet ordered Khalid b. Walid to lead an army of 350 soldiers of Muhajerun, Ansar and members of Banu Sulaym tribe to Banu Jadhimia near Mecca in order to invite them to Islam. Although they accepted Islam and surrendered, Khalid ordered to behead a number of them. When Holy Prophet was informed of the incident, he disassociate himself from Khalid’s action and sent Ali b. Talib to pay (blood money) of the deceased. Abd al-Rahman b. Awf believed that Khalid killed some of Banu Jadhimia to take revenge for his uncle, Faka b. Mughira.
Battle of Hunayn
In the same year, when Holy Prophet saww, was travelling from Mecca to the battle of Hunayn to fight against Hawazin tribe, Khalid b. Walid along with horseman of Banu Sulaym were leading the army, however he ran away during the battle. It is said later he returned to the battle-field and fought against the enemies in the battle. Khalid was injured after killing some oppositions including a woman. Then Holy Prophet ordered him not to kill children, women and slaves.
The Ninth year after Hijrat
In Rajab 9/630 when Holy Prophet saww was staying in Tabuk, he ordered Khalid to lead an army of 420 horsemen toward Ukaydir b. Abd al Malik, the Christian ruler of Dumat al-Jandal. After a short fight Khalid managed to capture Ukaydir and then they made peace with each other.
In the 10th year after Hijrat
In Rabi 2 or Jumada 1 (10/631) Holy Prophet sent Khalid b. Walid with 400 soldiers toward Banu Harith (Balharith b. K’ab) in Najran to invite them to Islam. In the same year-he was sent by Holy Prophet to Yemen to invite people to Islam. He stayed there and invited people to Islam for six months, but nobody accepted his invitations. Later Holy Prophet sent Imam Ali a.s. to Yemen and ordered Khalid to return.
In the time of Abu Bakr
According to al-Waqidi, Khalid was present in Hajjat al wida. He supported Abu Bakr after the demise of Holy Prophet saww, which secured him a high position, he was constantly supported by Abu Bakr.
In Ridda battles, Abu Bakr ordered Khalid b. Walid to visit Tay (Tey) tribe in Akraf, then visit Tulayha b. Khuwailid al-Asadi in Buzakha and finally visit Malik b. Nuwayra in Butah to invite them to Islam. If they refused the invitations he was ordered to fight against them. Later, Abu Bakr regretted sending Khalid to Buzakha. He decisively defeated Tulayha who claimed Prophethood and suppressed his followers. After that regardless of the fact that Malik b. Nuwayra, his tribe and Banu Tamim converted to Islam, they were captured as slaves by Khalid. Then Khalid ordered to kill Malik b. Nuwayra and some members of his tribe and he committed adultery with Malik’s wife that night.
This wicked action of Khalid which is ignored or justified by some historians had infuriated a number of Muslims including his cousin Umar b. Khattab. They asked Abu Bakr to punish him but he declined and said: “It was a mistake”. Later when Khalid returned to Madina, Abu Bakr accepted his apology.
In the time of Umar al Khattab
In the early days of the caliphate of Umar b. Khattab (middle of Jumada 2) 13/634 Khalid b. Walid was relieved from his position as chief of Muslims army and he was replaced by Abu Ubayda al-Jarrah.
Ruling over Qinnasrin
When Umar b. Khattab visited Syria in 17/638 he apologized to Khalid b. Walid. According to one narration he was also appointed by Umar as the governor of a number of cities including Ruha, Harran, Raqqa, Talmazan and Amid, where he stayed for a year. According to another narration, Khalid was appointed by Abu Ubayda as the ruler of Qinnasrin. During this time he attacked border regions of Romans numerously in Analia and gained massive plunders. When Umar was informed of Khalid’s generosities of plunders he gained especially, the large amount of money he gave to Ash’ath b. Qays, he was irritated and ordered Abu Ubayda to discharge him and investigate him about the money he collected. Later, half of Khalid’s properties were seized by Umar.
Dismissal from governance
After investigating Khalid, Abu Ubayda hesitated about informing him of Umar’s decision on his dismissal from governance. When Khalid returned in his Palace in Qinnasrin Umar himself removed him from power and ordered him to return to Madina. At first Khalid complained about Umar’s decision to companions. Then he visited Umar and explained how he achieved the money. He also gave half of his belongings to the caliph. Then Umar explained the reasons of his decision to administrators and people.
Some historical reports stated that when Khalid b. Walid resigned or was dismissed, he returned to Madina. After some time, he became ill and died there. According to a more famous narration, when Khalid was removed, he came to Hejaz and performed Hajj. Then he moved to Hums where he lived in solitary. Khalid passed away at the age of sixty in 21/642 or 22/643 and he was buried in Homs.
Mohamed Raza Jaffer