Important Guide of Madina
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Ansar

Ansar al-Nabi, helpers of the Prophet(s) were Muslims in Madina from Aws and Khazraj clans (originally Yemeni origin but settled in Madina) who allied with the Holy Prophet (s) before his migration or Hijra, and after his migration to Madina they helped him and the Muhajerun who migratedwho migrated to Madina. They were highly respected by Imam Ali (a) during his caliphate, and they always supported him.

Madina

Madina is the second most religious city for Muslims which is located in Saudi Arabia. The Prophet (s) emigration to this city marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. It had been used as Yathrib before the emigration of the Prophet (s). Madina is located in north-east of Mecca in Hijaz region. Distance between Madina and Mecca is 450 km. Madina is the first capital of Islam and many places including the tomb of Prophet (s) al-Masjid al-Nabi and al-Baqi cemetery.

Inhabitants before Islam

Before Islam, the two groups of Arab and Jews were living in the city. The Jews tribes were Banu Qaynaqa, Banu Nadir and Banu Qurayza. The Arab tribes were Aws and Khazraj. The population of Khazraj was three times of Aws.

Economy

Madina wasn’t like Mecca in economy; although there was some trade, but it was not comparable to Mecca that had summer and winter trade caravans. Economy of Madina was mostly based upon agriculture and date gardens around it. The most important products were date and grape. Date was the root of their economic life which was used as food and its wood was used in buildings.

Actions of the Prophet (s) in Madina
Building a Mosque

The first action of the Holy Prophet (s) in Madina was building a mosque, a place where in addition to being a centre of worship, became a cultural, political and administrative centre, a centre which was one of the main bases for Muslims.

Writing a Treaty

The second action of the Prophet (s) was writing a public treaty between Muslims of Madina. In this treaty which all Muslims accepted, ruling is known only for God and the Prophet (s) and some of civil and criminal rules of Islam had been accepted.

Pact of Brotherhood

Pact of Brotherhood is an agreement or pact between two Muslims to the effect that they count as one another’s brothers. The pact does not have legal consequences, such as inheritance or their family members being mahram. The best known pact of brotherhood is the one made by the Prophet (s) between Muhajerun and Ansar, in which he made such a pact between Ali (a) and himself. Like Salman and Abu Dhar.

The centre of Islamic government

Madina was the centre of the Islamic government in different times, including the rule of the Prophet (s) till the end of Imam al-Hassan (a) except three years of Imam Ali (a) in which Kufa was the centre.

Birthplace and Shrine of Shia Imams

Most of the Shia Imams of Ahlulbayt were born in this city. The city is the birthplace of Imam al-Hassan (2nd Imam), Imam al-Hussain (3rd Imam), Imam al-Sajjad (4th Imam), Imam al-Baqir (5th Imam), Imam Jaffer al-Sadiq (6h Imam), Imam Musa al-Kazim (7th Imam), Imam Ali Reza (8th Imam), Imam Mohammed Taqi al-Jawad(9th Imam), Imam Ali al-Hadi (10th Imam), Imam Hassan al-Askari (11th Imam) (a). Also the tomb of four Imams: Imam al-Hassan, Imam al-Sajjad, Imam al-Baqir, Imam al-Sadiq (a) are in Madina near Masjid al-Nabi in Al-Baqi cemetery.

Mosques
The Prophet’s Mosque
Al Masjid al-Nabawi

Al Masjid al-Nabi is a mosque in Madina, Saudi Arabia where Prophet Mohammed (s) is buried. Second to al-Masjid Al-Haram, al Masjid al-Nabawi is the holiest mosque in the world of Islam which was built by Prophet Mohamed (s) in the first year after Hijra. It was later expanded in different eras. The houses of Prophet (s) and Ali ibn Abi Talib(a) and Lady Fatima (a) were built next to this mosque, which were later added to the mosque. Al-Masjid al-Nabawi is among the most important shrines for Muslims, which is highly revered by Shias. Holy Prophet (s) used to say daily congregational prayer in this masjid and he promoted political and social frameworks in this mosque.

Geographical Location

It is situated 597 meters above sea level. Al-Masjid al Nabawi is located at 24.46 N 39.61 E in the centre of Madina, Saudi Arabia.

History
In the time of the Prophet (s)

When Holy Prophet (s) entered Yathrib, he let his camel to stop wherever it wanted and the place was supposed to be where the Prophet (s) would live. The camel of Holy Prophet (s) stopped in the current place of al-Masjid al-Nabawi. Then Muslims began to build a house for Holy Prophet (s) and a mosque there. Also other Muslims, built houses around the mosque with their doors which were opened to the mosque. The first structure of the mosque was built by sun-dried mud bricks in an area of 1050 sq. meters. Ashab Suffa (people of Suffa) started living in the northern side of the mosque which had a ceiling made of palm leaves. In the seventh/ thirteenth century it became necessary to expand the mosque as the number of Muslims increased. Then the mosque expanded to 2475 Sq. meters and it changed to a square shaped area.

In Saudi Era

The last expansion of al-Masjid al-Nabawi took place in 1405/1984-5 by Malik Fahd b. Abd al Aziz in which the area of the mosque was increased to 82,000 square meters. The vast floor of the mosque could accommodate 137,000 people to say prayer plus 90,000 people could say prayer on the roof. Accordingly, the capacity of the mosque was increased up to 257,000 people to say prayer. Today the mosque has ten minarets.

Sad al Abwab
Incident

A number of houses were built around the mosque for Prophet Mohammed and some of the companions. All these houses had an exit door and an extra door leading to this mosque. They used it for entering al-Masjid al-Nabawi in praying time. However, God ordered Prophet (s) to close all of the doors of houses which could be opened to the mosque, except Ali ibn Abi Talib house.

A number of people became upset by this order and complained about it. Holy Prophet (s) replied: “I am ordered by God; to close all the doors except for Ali (a). I was assigned to give such an order and I fulfilled the assignment”.

The hadith Sad al Abwab is regarded as a special privilege of ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib’ (a) a desire for everybody. Hakim al-Nishaburi has narrated this hadith and expressed that Sad al Abwab is among Sahih (authentic) hadiths: “As narrated from ‘Umar bin al-Khattab: also Prophet (s) managed Muslims territory in al-Masjid al-Nabawi and he held military, political and social meetings there.

Special Rituals and Manners

It is recommended that when you enter al-Masjid al-Nabawi, stop by its gate and read Idn al Dukhool (permission to enter). Then you should enter with your right foot from the gate of Jibrael and repeat Allaho Akbar (God is greatest) for hundred times. Then a two rakat (unit) prayer of the mosque is recommended to be performed. This is called: “Tahiyat e Masjid” when on the day of Judgement Masjid will be witness that you prayed salat there. It is recommended to pray and do this Niyyat whenever you enter in any new Masjid.

It is forbidden for those who are required to perform Ghusl al Janaba, ghusl al Hayd and ghusl al-Nifas to pray or stay in any Masjid, but they are allowed to enter from one gate and exit from another.

The House and Burial Place of Prophet (s)

The house and the burial place of Holy Prophet (s) were located out of the mosque when it was not expanded. But later they were added to the area of the mosque and a pentagon-shaped wall was built around them. As it was likely for the Crusaders to attack Madina and destroy the burial place of Holy Prophet (s) hence for protection a wall of stone and molten lead metal was constructed around the burial place of Prophet (s).

The House and the Burial place of Lady Fatima (s)

The house of Lady Fatima (a) was located behind the house of Ayesha, Prophets Wife (s). The door of her house was on the western side of the house which led to Prophet’s (s) house. Today the house is gone and it was added to the mosque, which is now located in the shrine and the house of Prophet Mohamed (s). Sunni scholars believe she was buried in al-Baqi cemetery, while the majority of Shia believe she was buried in her house, today is located in al Masjid al-Nabawi. Shiite scholars are not sure about the burial place of Lady Fatima, as her husband Imam Ali (a) made 70 graves of Lady Fatima that same night in around Madina due to some political reasons.

Its Doors

Al Masjid al-Nabawi had three doors in the beginning.

  1. The door on its southern side was closed when Qibla was changed to Ka’ba instead another door was opened in its northern side.
  2. The door in the western side called “Bab Atika” which is now known as “Bab al Rahma”.
  3. The door on eastern side known as “Bab Uthman”, “Bab al Nabi”, and “Bab al Jibrael” because this door was opened to the house of Uthman b. Affan also Holy Prophet (s) used to enter the mosque from this door and Jibrael came to Holy Prophet from this door in the time of battle of Banu Qurayza. Throughout different eras, doors were added and built for the mosque and even some of them were closed. Currently al-Masjid al-Nabawi has eighty-six doors.
Pillars

According to Rasul Ja’ Fariya, about 2104 pillars exist in al-masjid al-Nabawi and the most notable ones are; the Pillar of Hannana, the pillar of Tawba and pillar of Huras.

Al-Hannana Pillar: (the moaning Pillar) is a pillar in al- Masjid al-Nabawi. There used to be a palm tree in the place where the pillar is located today. According to historical accounts, the tree moaned from parting with the Holy Prophet (s). It is said that this event, Ibn Abi Ka’b took the trunk of the tree to his house and according to his house, and according to some hadiths, its trunk was buried under the minbar (pulpit) of the Prophet (s).

The Story:

Shiite and Sunni scholars have reported with many chains of transmissions that when the Prophet(s) migrated to Madina and constructed his mosque, there was an old, dry palm tree in a corner of the mosque. When the Prophet (s) gave a sermon, he relied on that tree. One day, a man went to him and said: “O the messenger of God! Let me make a minbar for you so that you can sit on it when you give sermons”. He made a three step minbar for the Prophet (s). The Prophet sat on its third step. The first time when he went on the minbar to give a sermon, the palm tree moaned like a camel which loses her baby. The Holy Prophet (s) went down the minbar and hold the tree until it calmed down. He then said: “it would moan until dooms day had I not held it in my arms”.

Because of this the tree came to be known “Hannana” (moaning). Some exegetes of the Quran have referred to the story under the verse 74 of sura al Baqara (The cow).

Pillar of Tawba

During the battle of Quraydhah, after the enemies had been surrounded by the Muslims, the besieged tribe called on Abu Lubabah to tell them what the Muslims were planning to do with them. Abu Lubabah had previously had dealings with the Banu Quraydhah and after seeing their crying and wailing, he told them what the Muslims are planning to do.

He was not supposed to reveal anything to the enemy and realising his mistake, he became grieved and proceeded to go to the masjid. He came to a date tree and tied himself to it saying:

“As long as my repentance is not accepted by Allah, I shall not untie myself from here. And the Prophet(s) himself must undo my bonds”.

When the Prophet heard this, he said: “If he had come to me I would have begged forgiveness on his behalf. Now he had acted on his own initiative, so how can I untie him until such time that his repentance has been accepted”.

For many days he remained tied there without food and water, except for prayers and when he had to answer the call of nature. Then one morning he received the news that his repentance has been accepted. When the Holy Prophet (s) entered for Fajr prayer he untied him.

Minbar

When al-Masjid al-Nabawi was on fire in 654/1256 the minbar was burnt as well. The current minbar in al Masjid al-Nabawi was sent by Sultan Murad, an ottoman King in 998/1589-90.

Mihrab

Mihrab of Holy Prophet (s): There is a Mihrab in al Masjid al-Nabawi which is attributed to Prophet (s), but it did not exist during the lifetime of Prophet(s). It was built later, apparently in the time of ‘Umar b. Abd al Aziz’ on the place where Prophet (s) used to say prayers, which is sacred to Muslims.

The Green Dome

The first dome of al-Masjid al-Nabawi was built by sultan al-Mansur Qalawum al-Mamluki in 678/1279-80. Later, Sultan Qaitbay repaired the dome in 887/1482-3 as it was damaged by fire. Also it was built in the time of Sultan Mahmud the Ottoman King in 1233/1817-8. In the time sultan ‘Abd al Hamid, the Ottoman King, the colour of the dome was changed to green which became famous as Qubbat al Khazra (the green dome). It has become a tradition to repaint the dome green once a couple of years.

Quba Mosque

Quba is an area six kilometres south of the Prophets (s) mosque. According to many narrations, Quba mosque is the instance of the Quran 9:108: “A mosque found on God wariness from the (very) first day is worthier that you stand in it (for prayer). Quba mosque is the first mosque, the Prophet (s) built.

The Prophet (s) said: “Who cleans and purifies himself and comes to Quba Mosque and prays, will have the reward of an Umra”.

Shajara Mosque

Dhu l-Hulayfa Mosque is among historical mosques located in Dhu l-Hulayfa or Abar Ali or Abiar Ali region, eight km south west of al-Masjid al-Nabi on the way to Mecca.

Dhu l-Hulayfa is the Miqat (venue) of those who go for ‘Umra & Hajj’ from Madina to Mecca. This place is also known with other names such as al-Shajara Mosque or al-Ihram Mosque. Holy Prophet (s) wore Ihram for ‘Umra and Hajj al-Tamattu’ in this Miqat.

Geographical location

Abar Ali (wells of Ali) is a region full of Palm trees, about eight km south of Madina, where there are water wells. It is said that they are dug by Imam Ali several wells for his palm gardens in this area. Based on a narration from Imam al-Sadiq (a) this area was given to Imam Ali (a)so, the wells which belonged to Imam Ali (a) were called as Abar Ali (a).

The size of this mosque is twenty-five Sq. meters from south to north and east to west sides. In recent years, this mosque has been beautifully reconstructed and its size has reached to eighty-eight thousand square meters.

Al-Juma Mosque

The Holy Prophet (s) when emigrating to Madina, on his way from Quba to Madina, said the first Juma prayer in this place of Banu Salim tribe, so a mosque was built there and named as al-Juma Mosque.

Al-Umra Mosque

There was a mosque named as Masjid al-Arafat or Masjid al-Umra placed in the direction of Qibla from Masjid al-Quba. The name was because on the Day of Arafah when the Prophet (s) was standing there, the earth became flat for him, so he could see the people in Arafah.

Mosque of Itban b. Malik

Mosque of Itban b. Malik had been one of the mosques of Quba region. Itban who was one of Naqib’s of Ansar, requested the Prophet (s) to come to his house and pray there, so he could make that place his mosque, this was because sometimes flood prevented him from going to local mosque. The Prophet (s) went to his house, prayed there, so that place became a mosque.

Mosque of Ali (a)

This mosque is located in the southern side of mosque of Fath. It is said that while Madina was surrounded by Pagans during the battle of Khandaq, this was the place that Ali (a) worshipped Allah SW.

THE SEVEN MOSQUES

In northwest of Madina and in hill side of mount Sal, there are seven mosques built close to each other which are named as ‘the seven mosques’: Mosque of Ali (a) Madina, mosque of Fatima (a) Madina, Mosque of Salman (Madina), Mosque of Abu Dhar (Madina), Dhu l-qiblatayn mosque, Mosque of Abu Bakr (Madina) and mosque of Umar (Madina).

Other Mosques in Madina:
  • Al Fath Mosque
  • Al-Ghamama Mosque
  • Al-Ijaba Mosque
  • Al-Ma’ras mosque
  • Thaniyyat al-wida Mosque
  • Al-Suqya Mosque
  • Umm Ibrahim Mosque
Fadikh Mosque

This mosque is also named Rad al-Shams Mosque. Al-Shams mosque or al-Fadheeh mosque, is a mosque in Madina one kilometre away from the Quba Mosque on the east side. According to Hadiths, the event of Rad al-Shams (returning the sun), which was a miracle of Holy Prophet (s) and Imam Ali (a) occurred in this place. Only ruins of the mosque have remained today. The mosque is also known as Banu Nadir Mosque.

Rad al-shams (literally mean ‘to return the Sun’) because in the event of sieging the fort of Banu Nadir, the Prophet (s) slept at Imam Ali (a) lap in the evening. When he woke up and found that Imam Ali (a) had not yet said his afternoon prayer (Asr prayer), he asked God to return the sun so that Ali (a) could say his prayer in time. The hadith (narration) in which the story is narrated came to be known as Rad al Shams Hadith which is transmitted by both Shiite and Sunni hadith transmitters. The mosque is also known as the Mosque of Banu Nadir, because it was located in a place where the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir resided before conquest of Muslims.

Geographical location:

The Mosque is located southeast of Madina, one km from the east side of the Quba Mosque in the district of Qurban. Only ruins of the mosque have remained today- only four walls of it have survived.

MOUNT UHUD

Mount Uhud is a reddish mountain in Hijaz, north of Madina. It is located 4 kms north of al-Masjid al-Nabawi.

The Battle of Uhud was a famous ghazwas of Holy Prophet (s) against the polytheists of Mecca in 3/625. Quraysh marched out toward Madina, as they desired to avenge their losses in the Battle of Badr while Abu Sufyan was the commander of the army. Holy Prophet (s) and senior members of Ansar and Muhajerun planned to fight against Quraysh within Madina and lever left the city, on the other hand young Muslims and also Hamza b. Abdul Muttalib, Prophet’s uncle, we’re willing to fight outside the city. Finally, Holy Prophet (s) accepted the wishes of the later. At first, Muslims defeated Meccans, but a part of Muslim Archers having Abdullah b. Jubayr as their commander on mount Aynyan on the left flank Uhud, left their assigned posts and faced a surprise attack from Meccans which led to defeat of Muslims. They faced a serious defeat with approximately 70 martyred Muslims including Hamza b. Abdul Muttalib who got mutilated, even Holy Prophet (s) was badly injured on his face and his tooth.

Leaving Madina

Holy Prophet (s) prepared his army and marched towards Uhud with one thousand soldiers. Before the battle commence, Holy Prophet (s) gave a speech to Muslim soldiers and ordered archers to never leave their positions under any circumstances and only protect the other soldiers.

Defeat of Muslims

Muslim archers who were appointed on the left flank disobeyed Holy Prophet’s orders and they ran downhill to load plunder. Abd Allah b. Jubayr tried to make them return to their posts but it was unsuccessful. When enemy noticed the scattered Muslim soldiers, they attacked again alongside Ikrima b. Abi Jahl to the remaining soldiers on the hill and the rear. Rumours were circulating that Holy Prophet (s) was perished. It brought disorder to Muslim Army, they scattered all over the place, even some started climbing the mountain. Only Ali ibn Abi Talib (a) stayed near Holy Prophet (s) to protect him. Then some other Muslims joined Prophet (s) including Asim b. Thabit, Abu Dujana, Sahl b. Hunayf.

Allah SW sent the sword ‘Dhulfiqar’ via Jibrael in this battle and Lady Fatima came to treat her father’s wounds in this battle.

Martyrdom of Hamza

Meccans swept through Muslim soldiers and martyred many, most importantly Hamza b. Abdul Muttalib. Jubayr b. Mut’ins slave, Wahshi b. Harb, threw Hamza down with a spear and then cut open his corpse, taking out his liver for Hind, Abu Sufyan’s wife. She attempted to eat his liver, because Hamza had killed her father before. After Hamza was martyred and mutilated, Holy Prophet (s) was dejected and irritated. He cried and did mourning for many days.

Abu Sufyan reaction

After fighting had ceased, Abu Sufyan came near Muslims who were gathered on slopes of hills, after praising idols he said, this war was a respond to the Battle of Badr.

Date

The battle of Uhud was fought on Saturday, shawwal 7, 3/March 23, 625. It is also said it was on Shawwal 15, 3/March 31, 625.

Hamza b. Abdul Muttalib (d.3/625) titled as “Asad Allah” “Asad Rasul Allah” and “Sayyid al Shuhada” leader of the martyrs-was the Prophet’s uncle and martyred in the battle of Uhud. Even when Hamza had not still become a Muslim, he defended the Prophet (s) against the harassments of idolaters. He was one of the noble people of Quraysh and therefore when he became Muslim, Quraysh would harass the Prophet (s) less than before.

After becoming a Muslim, Hamza was remained among the most important defenders of the Prophet (s). He accompanied Muslims in the Shib Abi Talib (boycott of 3 years) in Mecca. Hamza participated in a number of battles including the Battle of Badr and the Battle of Uhud in which he was martyred.

AL-BAQI

Al-Baqi also known as “Jannat al-Baqi”, al-Baqi al-Gharqad” is the first and oldest Islamic cemetery of Madina where four Shia Imams (a) and many other noble ones among the sahaba and the Tabiun are buried. Some structures were built over the graves of these Imams (a) as well as other figures which were known as Buqas of Baqi. These buqas were destroyed by Wahabbis in an incident called Demolition of al-Baqi.

Demolition of al-Baqi refers to the event of demolition of historical and religious graves and shrines of al-Baqi cemetery by the Wahabbis of contemporary time. Wahabbis destroyed places and graves in al-Baqi two times, once in 1220/1805-06 and the second time in 1344/1926. Many Shia hold gatherings, remember the event and mourn on shawwal 8 of every year which is known as Yaum al-Huzn (Day of Demolition).

History
  • According to historical reports, choosing al-Baqi as the Cemetery of Muslims was a decision of the Holy Prophet (s) in the first year of Hijra. It has the graves of Abbas the uncle of Holy Prophet (s) and four infallible Imams, domes and mausoleums were built.
  • With the emergence of Wahabbis in Hijaz who were inspired by the ideas of Ibn Taymiyya, believed that building anything upon graves and visiting them is against monotheism and thus they destroyed all buildings of such form in different regions of Hijaz. In 1220/1805-06, Wahabbis besieged Madina and after the city was surrendered, demolition of all the domes in al-Baqi.
  • The shrine of the four Imams and the dome of Lady Fatima (a) known as Bayt al-Ahzan where either destroyed or seriously damaged in the first attack of Wahabbis in the same year.
  • Ottoman empire sent an army took back Madina in Dhi l-Hijja; 1227/1812 some shrines were reconstructed in 1234/1818-9 by the order of Sultan Mahmud II (ruling from 1223/ 1808-9 to 1255/1839-40), as some reports suggest the existence of Shrines after those years. Among some people who have reported the existence of the shrines of Imam (a) is Hisan al-Saltwa, son of Abbas Mirza Qajar, Naib al-Saltana who went to Madina in 1297/1880 and visited those shrines and Bayt al-Ahzan. He mentioned more than 10 buildings and shrines in al-Baqi cemetery.

Bayt al-Ahzan of Lady Fatima (a) has been behind the shrine of Imams. The four Imams of Shia were in one shrine but their graves were separate. Ayaz Khan also mentioned the existence of the tomb of Ibrahim, son of Holy Prophet (s) Abd Allah b. Jaffer Al-Tayyar, Safiyya, the Prophet’s aunt, Atika (Safiyya’s sister), Ummul Banin (mother of Hazrat Abbas (a), and some others from Banu Hashim located in an alley near al-Baqi.

  • In the second attack of Wahabbis in 1344/1926 all historical sites in this cemetery were destroyed following the fatwa of Shaykh Abd Allah Bulayhad, the chief judge of Saudi’s claiming that visiting graves is a sign of polytheism and illegitimate innovation.
Muslims Reaction

According to Shia and Sunni Muslims and contrary to Wahhabi beliefs, building mausoleums upon graves is not against Islamic beliefs and on the contrary, visiting the graves of religious figures and believers is a recommended act which has a long history in Islamic tradition. In addition to the religious aspect, religious sites in al-Baqi had a historical importance as well and reminded the historical identity of Muslims. Therefore, demolition of al-Baqi sparked world-wide protests among Muslims and made some Islamic countries react to it.

Companions and Followers buried here:
  • Infant son of Holy Prophet (s), his wives (mother of believers) are buried here.
  • Halima al-Sa’diyya (the wet nurse of the Prophet(s).
  • Fatima bint Asad (mother of Imam Ali (a).
  • Fatima Kilabiyya (wife of Imam Ali (a) and mother of Hazrat Abbas (a).
  • Abbas b. Abd al Muttalib (the Prophet’s (s) uncle). According to Dhabi, it seems that Al-Abbas converted to Islam after the battle of Badr.
  • Uthman b. Affan
  • Aqil b. Abi Talib. Aqil was one of the Prophet’s companions. Imam Ali’s brother and Muslim’s father. He was great genealogist of Quraysh and was quick at repartees.
Biography:

Aqil was a son of Abu Talib b. Muttalib. He was 20 years older than Imam Ali (a). Therefore, his birth had been 10 years after Am al Fil. Aqil reluctantly was present in the army of pagans during the Battle of Badr. He became captive in this war and his uncle al-Abbas paid 4000 dirhams as fidya to set him free. He took part in Battle of Mu’ta, he also did not run away in the battle of Hunayn.

During Imam Ali’s (a) Government

According to Ibn l-hadid, ‘Aqil went to Iraq, then to Syria to see Mu’awiya, and after that came back to Madina, not having participated in any battles of Imam Ali (a). Even though he told Imam Ali (a) his sons and he, were ready to assist him in wars, Imam (a) did not oblige him to take part in the wars.

  • Malik b. Anas (Leader of Malikis)
Imam al-Hassan b. Ali b. Abi Talib (a)

Born: Ramadhan 15, March 1, 625

Birthplace: Madina

Imamate: From Ramadhan 21, 40 / Jan 28,661 (for 10 Years)

Martyrdom: Safar 28, 50/March 27, 670

Burial Place: Al-Baqi cemetery

Spouse: Khawla, Umm Bashir, Umm Ishaq, Ja’da

Sons: al-Qasim, Zayd, Abd Allah, Talha, al-Hasan

Daughters: Fatima

Titles: al-Mujtaba (the chosen), al-Sibt (Grandson), Syed Shabab ahl al Jannah (master of the youth of Paradise), al Zaki (the pure), al-Taqi (the pious), al-Sayyid (the master).

Name: the word “al-Hassan” in Arabic means good or beautiful. This name was chosen for Imam al-Hassan by the Prophet. According to Hadith, this name was chosen by God’s command and did not have a precedent

In pre-Islamic history.

Al-Hasan b. Ali b. Abi Talib, was the second Imam of Shia (40-50/661-670), the fifth caliph of the Muslim community for seven months, and regarded by some Sunnis as the last of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.

Al-Hassan b. Ali (a) was the first child of Ali (a) and the first grandson of the Holy Prophet (s). It is reported that the Prophet (s) chose the name al-Hassan for him and that he greatly loved him. This name was given by Allah through Jibrael and was used first time in this world. The first seven years of al-Hassan’s life were during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (s). He was present in the allegiance of Ridwan and in the story of Mubahila between the Prophet (s) and the Christians delegate from Najran. He was one of the people of the cloak, about whom the verse of purity (Quran 33:33) was revealed. The verses 76:8, 42:23, and 3:61, were also revealed about him, his parents, and his brother. He gave all his wealth to charity twice, and because such acts of generosity, he came to be called “The Generous one of the family of Prophet (s). He went to Hajj twenty-five times barefoot.

During the revolt at the end of ‘Uthman’s caliphate, he was tasked by Imam Ali (a) to protect the house of the caliph. During the caliphate of Imam Ali (a), al-Hassan moved to Kufa with his father and was one of the Commanders of his army in the battle of Jamal and Siffin.

On Ramadhan 21, 40 AH/ Jan 28, 661, and after the martyrdom of Imam Ali (a), al-Hassan became the Imam and successor of his father. More than forty-thousand men pledged their allegiance to him on the same day. However, Mu’awiya did not accept his caliphate, and launched a military operation against him. The Imam (a) himself headed to Sabat with a group of soldiers. Mu’awiya tried to spread rumours among the Imam’s troops to prepare the ground for a peace treaty. At the same time, one of the Kharijites tried to assassinate Imam al-Hassan, which resulted in the Imam’s injury. The Imam was taken to Madina to receive treatment. Simultaneously, a group of Kufan chiefs wrote a letter to Mu’awiya and praised him to either kill al-Hassan or to surrender him to Mu’awiya. Mu’awiya sent their letter to Imam Hassan (a) and proposed a peace treaty to the Imam. Seeing no other choice before him, Imam al-Hassan accepted the peace treaty and abdicated the caliphate with the condition that Mu’awiya should rule according to the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (s) and should not appoint any successor for himself, and that no one, including the Shiite, should be persecuted. Mu’awiya did not abide by any of these conditions later. The peace treaty with Mu’awiya led to the dissatisfaction of a number of the Imam’s companions so much so that some of them called the Imam (a) the Humilator of the believers.

The Imam returned to Madina after the peace treaty in 41 AH/661 and remained there until the end of his life. In Madina, he was as a religious and scholarly authority and had a high social status. When Mu’awiya decided to introduce his son Yazid as his successor and demanded that people pledge their allegiance to him, he sent one-hundred thousand dinars to Ja’da bt. Al-Ashath Imam Hassan’s wife to poison the Imam. She did so and Imam Hassan (a) was martyred forty days after he was poisoned. According to a report, the Imam had requested to be buried next to the grave of the Prophet (s) but Marwan b. al-Hakam and a group of Umayyad’s did not let this happen. Thus, he was buried in al-Baqi cemetery.

Childhood

It is reported that Imam al-Hassan used to attend the sessions of the Prophet and would retell to his mother what was revealed in those sessions unto the Prophet (s).

When Banu Hashim carried the coffin of Imam al-Hassan toward the grave of the Prophet (s) Marwan and a group of Umayyad’s took up arms and blocked the way. Abu l-Faraj al-Isfahani (d.356) mentions that Ayesha arrived there on a mule and asked the Umayyad’s to stop Banu Hashim. According to Baladhuri’s report, when she found out about the conflict, she claimed that the burial place of the Prophet (s) was her home and she would not allow anyone to be buried there.

It is reported that Marwan said: “while Uthman is buried on the outskirts of the city, we won’t tolerate that you bury al-Hasan next to the Prophet (s). A conflict was about to breakout between Banu Hashim and the Umayyad’s, but Imam al-Hussain (a) because of his brother’s prior request, did not allow to happen. Thus, the body of Imam al-Hassan was taken to Al-Baqi cemetery and buried beside the grave of his grandmother Fatima bt. Al-Asad.

According to Shahrashub, the Umayyad’s shot many arrows towards the body of Imam al-Hassan (a) seventy of which hit the Imam’s body. The shroud had to be changed again.

The Prophet (s) is also reported to have said about al-Hassan (a): “He is the master of Paradise and the Proof of God upon the Ummah. He who follows him is one of me and he who disobeys him is not of me”.

Imam Ali b. al-Hussain al-Sajjad

Born: Shaban 5,38 Jan 6,659

Birthplace: Madina

Imamate: From Muharram 10, 61 / Oct 10, 680 (for 34 Years)

Cause of Martyrdom: by poison

Martyrdom: Muharram 25, 95/ Oct 20, 713 in Madina.

Burial place: al-Baqi

Ali b. al-Hussain b. Ali b. Abi Talib known as Imam al-Sajjad and Zayn al-Abedin is the fourth Imam of Shia. The period of Imamate was 34 years. He was present in Battle of Karbala but did not participate, due to his sickness and was not martyred. He was taken captive to Kufa and Damascus together with other captives of Karbala. His speech at the presence of Umayyad caliphs created awareness among people about the position of ahl al bayt (a) after being released, he stayed in Madina until the end of his life. The event of Harra, Tawabun movement and the uprising of al-Mukhtar happened at his time, however there is no reliable report of his opinions about them.

Al-Sahifa al Sajjadiyya is a compilation of his supplication s which reflect the picture of the society that say and the true part of life through the education of the religion and the Quran and purification of souls and collecting souls to God. Risalat al Huqquq (Treatise on Rights) is his another work which is a short treatise containing duties a human being have.

Lineage

Ali b. Hussain b. Abi Talib known as Imam al-Sajjad and Imam Zayn al Abedeen is son of Imam al-Hussain. He is the fourth Imam of Shia. Al-Sheikh al-Saduq wrote, “Mother of Ali b. al-Hussain was the daughter of Yazdgerd son of Shahriyar, the king of Persians, passed away while giving birth to him.

Titles

Imam al-Sajjad teknonym were Abu l-Hassan, Abu l-Hussain Mohammed and Abu Abd Allah. His titles are Zayn al Abedeen (Adornment of worshippers), Sayyid al-Sajedeen (master of prostrators), al-Sajjad (the frequently prostrating one), al-Hashimi, al-Alavi, al-Madani, al-Qurashi. Dhu l-Thafanaat, is another title of Imam al-Sajjad, since the skin of his prostration points of his body (knees, palms, and forehead) had become hardened and there were calluses on them like the knees of camels due to praying a lot.

Birth and martyrdom

According to the famous opinion, Imam al-Sajjad (a) was born in 38/659, thus he has seen a part of Imam Ali’s life, the imamate of Imam Hassan al Mujtaba and Imam Hussain (a) and Mu’awiya attempt in suppressing Shia in Iraq and elsewhere. However, in some reports, the age of Imam(a) is mentioned less than what is famous and have mentioned his time of birth about 48/668. Although such reports have been mentioned in different sources, but there are evidences which do not let one believe them; such as the fact that famously historians and biographers have mentioned the birth time of Imam al-Sajjad (a) 38/659, which implies that his age in the Battle of Karbala was 23 years old.

After narrating from Ima al-Sadiq saying: Ali b. Hussain passed away at the age of 58.

Wives and children

According to Sheikh al-Mufid:

  1. Imam Mohammed al-Baqir whose mother was Umm Abd Allah (Imam al-Hassan’s daughter).
  2. Abd Allah
  3. Al-Hassan
  4. Al-Hussain al-Akbar: The mother of Abd Allah, al-Hassan and al-Hussain Akbar was a maid.
  5. Zayd
  6. Umar: The mother of Zayd and Umar was a maid.
  7. Al-Hussain al-Asgher
  8. Abd al-Rahman
  9. Sulayman: The mother of Umar, al-Hussain and Sulayman was a maid.
  10. Ali: Who was Imam al-Sajjad’s smallest child.
  11. Khadija: Whose mother was also mother of Ali.
  12. Al-Mohamed al Asgher: whose mother was a maid.
  13. Fatima
  14. Illiyya
  15. Umm Kulthum: The mother of Fatima, Illiyya, and umm Kulthum was a maid.
Kufa

After the tragedy of Karbala, they captured the family of Imam al Hussain (a) and took them to Kufa and Damascus. Upon taking them from Karbala to Kufa, they put Jamia(hand to neck chains) on him and since he was sick and could not keep sitting on the back of the camel, they fastened his feet under the belly of the camel. Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad kept Imam al-Sajjad and other captives of Karbala in prison and wrote a letter to Damascus and asked Yazid what to do with them. Yazid replied and ordered him to send captives and the heads of martyrs of Karbala to Damascus. Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad put shackles on Imam’s neck and sent him and other captives with Muhaffar b. Tha’laba to Damascus.

Damascus

Imam al-Sajjad(a) gave a speech in the mosque of Damascus also Yazid courtyard and introduced himself, his father and his grandfather to people and told the people of Damascus that what Yazid and his agents have propagated are not true. His father was not a rebel and did not want to disturb Muslim Community and make mischief in Islamic lands. He rose for truth and by invitation of Muslims to remove heresies brought up in religion and bring the simplicity it had at the time of his grandfather.

Return to Madina

Imam al-Sajjad(a) lived 34 years after the Battle of Karbala and always made efforts to keep the memory of the martyrs of Karbala alive.

Whenever he drank water, he remembered his father and wept on the hardships of Imam al-Hussain (a). It is mentioned in a narration from Imam al-Sadiq that, “Imam al-Sajjad wept for forty years upon his honourable father, while he (a) was fasting the days and praying the nights. At the time of breaking his fasting when his servant took food and water for him, he(a) said, “grandson of the Prophet was martyred hungry! He (a) frequently repeated this and wept so that his tears were mixed with his food and drink. He (a) was in such a state until when he (a) passed away”.

Contemporary Uprisings
Event of Harra

Some years after the battle of Karbala, people of Madina organised the uprising of Harra against Umayyad’s in 63/683. People of the city pledged allegiance with Abd Allah b. Hanzala whose father was known as ‘Ghasil al Malaika’, (the one washed by angels) and first besieged Umayyad’s who were about 1,000 people in the house of Marwan b. Hakam and then pushed them out of the city. Imam al-Sajjad stepped away from the uprising since its beginning because he (a) knew its destiny.

In the heat of the uprising of Harra, Marwan b. Hakam who was the enemy of the Ahl al-Bayt went to Abdallah b. Umar and asked him to guard his family with his, but Abd Allah did not accept. When Marwan became disappointed with his support, he restored to Imam al-Sajjad (a). Imam (a) accepted his request with great benevolence and sent Marwan’s family together with his own family to Yanbu (a spring near Madina on the right side of Radwa mountain).

In this event, Imam accepted the responsibility of guarding 400 families and paid all their expenses while the army of Muslim b. Aqaba (the commander of Yazid’s army in the event of Harra) was in Madina.

Tawabbin Uprising

Tawwbin movement was another movement after the Battle of Karbala, the leader of which was Sulayman b. Surad al-Khuzaee together with some other distinguished Shia personalities of Kufa. In general, Tawabbin were about to hand the leadership of the society to Ahlul bayt (a) in case they could win and obviously there was no one from the progeny of Fatima except Imam al-Sajjad. However, there was no political relationship between Imam al-Sajjad and Tawabbin.

Mukhtar’s Uprising

Mukhtar’s uprising was the third movement after the Battle of Karbala. Mukhtar succeeded to attract Shia to himself in Kufa, he asked Imam Sajjad for help but Imam did not face him with open arms.

Worship

Malik b. Anas said: Ali b. Hussain made a thousand Rakat prayer every day before he passed away. Thus he was called Zayn al Abedeen (adornment of the worshippers).

Helping the poor

Abu Hamza al Thumali said: “Every night Ali b. Hussain (a) secretly carried some food on his shoulders to the poor and said, “the charity made at the darkness of the night appeases the wrath of God”.

Mohammed b. Ishaq said, “There were people living in Madina unknowing how their daily provision was provided; and after Ali b. al-Hussain (a) passed away, their night food delivery stopped”.

Those baskets had left marks on his shoulders and when they were washing his body after he (a) passed away, they saw those marks. Ibn Sa’d wrote, “When a poor person came to him, he (a) went and gave the poor what he wanted and said, “before charity reaches the asking one, it reaches God’s hand”.

Al Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya

Al Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is the collection of Imam al-Sajjad’s supplications and a mirror in which the picture of the society at that time, especially Madina, can be seen: his aversion to bad behaviours and speech of people at that time and taking refuge to God from what he saw and heard and clarifying the right path under the guidance of religion and the Quran and purification of souls from pollutions, as if Imam wanted as much as possible to disconnect people from Satan and connect them to God. Al Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya has been translated into several languages.

Risalat al Huqquq

Risalat al Huqquq is one of the works attributed to Imam al-Sajjad (a). In this treatise 51 different rights are listed. This treatise has been translated into English and other languages.

To convert a Christian or anyone use this book and the above supplication book as donation to them.

Supplication of Abu Hamza Thumali

Imam al-Sajjad would recite this supplication in dawns of the month of Ramadhan which is narrated by Abu Hamza Thumali. It contains transcendental concepts and eloquent statements.

Ziyarah Amin Allah

Ziyarah Amin Allah is a Ziyarah that Imam al-Sajjad has recited it when visiting the grave of Imam Ali (a).

Imam Mohammed b. Ali al-Baqir

Mohammed b. Ali b. al-Hussain b. Ali b. Abi Talib known as Imam al-Baqir and Baqir al Uloom, was the fifth Imam of the Shia.

Born: Rajab 1, 57/May 10,677

Birthplace: Madina

Imamate: From Muharram 25, 95/Oct 20,713 (for 19 years)

Martyrdom: Dhu l-Hujja 7, 114 /Jan 28,713

Cause of Martyrdom: BY poisoning

Burial place: Al- Baqi Cemetery

Mother: Fatima bt. Al-Hassan.

Imam al-Baqir (a) made a great scientific movement which reached its peak at the time of his son al-Sadiq. His narrations in religion, conducted of the Prophet (s), Quran Sciences, moral conduct, and manner is more than what is remained from the children of Imam al Hassan and Imam al Hussain (a). Thus, during his imamate, a great step was taken towards organisation of Shii thought in different fields including ethics, jurisprudence, theology, exegesis etc. According to historical sources he was present at the Battle of Karbala as a child.

The meaning of al-Baqir is “splitter”. Al Yaqubi wrote that “He (a) was named al-Baqir since he split knowledge”. His famous teknonym (kunniyat) is ‘Abu Jaffer’. In hadith references, he (a) is mostly referred to as Abu Jaffer al-Awwal. In narrations, Umm Farwa is mentioned as the wife of Imam al-Baqir.

Scientific Movement

From 94/712-713 to 114/732-33, there was a period of different Schools of Jurisprudence emerging and narrating many hadiths about exegesis. This was because of the weakening of the Umayyad government, and the conflicts among statesmen over power. Sunni scholars, Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, Makhul al-Shami, Hisham b. Urwa, etc. were active in narrating hadiths and issuing Fatwa, and other groups tried to spread their own beliefs such as Khawariji, Kaysamiyya, and Ghulat. He (a) was superior to all nobles of Banu Hashim in knowledge; piety, dignity, and merits. His narrations in religion, conduct of the Prophet (s). It was in this period that Shia started to well establish its culture including Jurisprudence, exegeses, and ethics.

Imam al-Baqir (a) strongly rejected reasoning of the followers of analogy (Qiyas) in Jurisprudence and took sharp stances against other Islamic sects and this way tried to separate the authentic ideology domain of the Ahlul bayt in different fields from other sects.

The scientific face of Imam al-Baqir was not only known in Hijaz but also spread in Iraq and Khorasan. There is a report saying about the Imam (a), “I saw people of Khorasan had circled around him and asked him their scientific questions”.

Exegesis

Imam al-Baqir (a) had dedicated a part of his time to explain exegesis issues, by holding exegesis sessions and answering questions of scholars and other people. It is said that Imam al-Baqir wrote a book in exegesis of the Quran which Ibn Nadim has mentioned in his al-Fihrist.

Imam (a) considered the knowledge of the Quran only held by the Ahl al Bayt (a) since it is only they who can distinguish the clear issues in the Quran from unclear ones and the abrogating from the abrogated. Such power is not held by anyone other than the Ahl al Bayt (a) since it is only they who can distinguish the clear issues in the Quran from unclear ones and the abrogating from the abrogated. Such power is not held by anyone other than the Ahlul Bayt (a) “Nothing is farther than exegesis of the Quran from the intellect of people, since a verse which is a cohesive speech, the beginning of which happens to be about one issue and the end of it about another issue and this cohesive speech is interpreted from different aspects.

Hadith

Imam al-Baqir paid particular attention to hadiths (or traditions) from the Prophet (s) to the extent that Jabir b. Yazid al-Ju’fi narrated 70,000 traditions from the noble Prophet (s) from him (a). Also Aban b. Taghlib and other students of Imam al-Baqir (a) narrated a great number of this tremendous legacy from the Imam (a).

Imam Baqir (a) said: “know the levels of our Shia by the number of Hadiths from the Ahlul Bayt (a) they narrate and their knowledge to them, which is the knowledge to hadith (dirayat al-hadith): and it is through understanding of hadiths that the faithful reach highest levels of faith”.

Theology

At the time of Imam al-Baqir (a) the emerging foundations and expression of different beliefs were easier, due to opportunity and the lack of pressure and control by the government which also caused deviant thoughts to spread in the society. Under these circumstances, Imam al-Baqir (a) had to announce authentic Islamic beliefs, denounce and reject false beliefs, and answer related questions. Therefore, he (a) held his theological discussions with the direction towards the mentioned issues. Among such issues was the inability of human intellect to understand the truth of God, external existence of the necessary existent, and the necessity to obey Islam.

Historical Legacies

Imam said: “God has not created a monument more beloved than Ka’ba on earth”.

Companions and students

The situation at that time preferred a foundation that Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq benefitted highly from. That opportune situation was the result of weakness of the Umayyad government. Internal crises of their political system did not allow the rulers to suppress the voices of Ahlul Bayt (a) and isolate them as previous rulers has done. This situation helped Imam al-Baqir and Imam al-Sadiq to give jurisprudential; exegesis-related, ethical opinions in Jurisprudence and hadith books.

This enabled personality such as Mohammed b. Muslim to narrate 30,000 hadiths and Jabir b. Yazid al Ju’fi narrated 70,000 hadiths from Imam al-Baqir.

From the viewpoint of Shia scholars, the most prominent jurists of the beginning centuries of Islam were six people who were all companions of Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq: Zurara b. A’yan, Ma’ruf b. Kharrabudh al-Makki, Abu Basir al-Asadi, Fudayl b. Yasar al-Basri, Mohammed b. Muslim and Burayd b. Mu’awiya al-Ijili.

In his book about Rijal, al Shaykh al-Tusi counted companions of Imam al-Baqir (a) and people who narrated from him as 462 men and two women.

Martyrdom

Imam al-Baqir (a) passed away on Dhu l-Hijjah 7, 114 / Jan 28 ,733. Some sources have mentioned Hisham b. Abd al-Malik as the one who poisoned him. Imam al-Baqir was buried beside his father’s grave and the grave of al-Hassan b. Ali, His father’s uncle, in al-Baqi cemetery.

Imam Jaffer al-Sadiq (a)

Jaffer b. Mohammed b. Ali b. al-Hussain- known as Imam al-Sadiq, is the sixth Imam of Imamiyya and the fifth Imam of Ismaiili’s.

Born: Rabi 1, 17,83/ April 20, 702

Birthplace: Madina

Imamate: From Dhu l-Hijja 7, 114 /28 Jan 733 (for 34 Years)

Martyrdom: Shawwal 25, 148/ Dec 14, 765 in Madina

Cause of Martyrdom: Poisoning by current ruler

Burial Place: al-Baqi cemetery

Mother: Umm Farwa

Spouse: Fatima, Hamida

Contemporary Rulers: Hisham b. Abdul Malik, al-Walid b. Abdul Malik, Marwan b. Mohammed, Abu l-Abbas al-Saffah, Al-Mansur al-Dawaniqi.

His Imamate lasted 34 (lunar Years) (114/733-148/765) and was concurrent with the reign of the last five Umayyad caliphs (that is from Hisham b. Abd al-Malik onwards) and with that of the first two Abbasid caliphs al-Saffah and al-Mansur al-Dawaniqi. Because of the weakness of the Umayyad rule at his time, Imam al-Sadiq was able to have relatively wider scholarly activities. His companions, students and those who quoted hadiths from him is said to have amounted to four-thousand people. Most of the hadiths of Ahlul Bayt recorded in Twelver Shiite hadith collections are from Imam al-Sadiq (a). This is why Imamia is called ‘Jafari School’.  Imam al-Sadiq has had a high status in the eyes of Prominent Sunni scholars. Abu Hanifa and Malik b. Anas were among the people who quoted hadith from him.

Despite the weakness of Umayyad’s and the requests from the Shia: Imam al-Sadiq did not rise up against the caliphate. He rejected Abu Muslim al-Khorasani and Abu Salama, who asked him to become the caliph. He did not take part in the revolt of his uncle Zayd b. Ali either and discouraged the Shia from getting involved in any uprisings. However, he did not have good relations with the caliphs of his time either, and he had to do Taqiyya because of their persecution.

To facilitate his contacts with the Shia, Imam al-Sadiq established the network of Wikala (deputyship). The activities of this network continued and increasingly expanded until the end of Minor Occultation.

The Imam (a) was summoned several times to Baghdad and thus he travelled to Iraq, and also visited Karbala, Najaf and Kufa. He showed the grave of Imam Ali (a) which was previously unknown to his companions.

Some Shiite scholars believe that Imam al-Sadiq was poisoned by Mansur al-Dawaniqi and thus martyred. He introduced Imam al-Kazim (a) to his companions as his successor, but to protect the life of Imam Kazim (a) he mentioned in his will five people, including al-Mansur, as the executors of his will. After the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq several sects appeared among the Shia, including Ismaili’s, Fatahiya, and Nawasiyya.

Name, Lineage and Titles

His father was Imam Mohammed al-Baqir (a). His mother was Umm Farwa. His famous Teknonym (Kunya) was Abu Abd Allah (because of his second son Abd Allah al-Aftah). In some sources other Teknonym as Abu Ismail (because of his eldest son, Ismail) and Abu Musa (because of his son Musa al-Kazim) are mentioned.

His famous title was al-Sadiq which means “truthful”. According to hadith, the Prophet gave this title to Imam (a) to distinguish him from Jaffer al-Kadhab. However,  according to an analysis of the history, Imam al-Sadiq (a) was titled “al-Sadiq” because he (a) avoided any involvement in the uprising of his time, for at that time, the one who gathered people around and provoked an uprising against the government was titled Kadhab (the liar). Other titles have also been mentioned for Imam (a) including al-Sabir, al-Tahir, al-Fadil.

Birth

He was born on Rabi 117, 83/ April 20, 702 in Madina. Twelve years of his life were contemporary with his grandfather and thirty one years of it were contemporary with his father and his imamate lasted thirty four years.

Wives and children

Wife: Hamida- Children: Musa, Ishaq, Mohammed

Wife: Fatima- daughter of al-Hussain b. Ali b. Imam al-Hussain.  Children: Ismail, Abd Allah, Umm Farwa.

Other wives: Children: Abbas, Ali, Asma, Fatima.

Imamate

Imam al-Sadiq (a) accompanied his father on the latter’s travel to Syria when Imam al-Baqir was summoned by Hisham b. Abd al Malik. Imam was at last summoned by al-Mansur to Iraq and went there accompanied by Safwan al-Jammal and was forced to stay there for a while.

Scientific Movement

Because of the weakness of the Umayyad’s at the time of Imam al-Sadiq (a) the Imam was relatively free to teach and engage in scholarly activities. This religious and scholarly freedom rarely happened during the time of other Imams, and thus most of our hadiths are from Imam al-Sadiq (a). According to Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, people learned and transmitted a great deal of knowledge from him, and his fame reached far and wide. Al-Jahiz also wrote that “his knowledge and Jurisprudence have filled the world”. Al-Hassan b. Ali Washsha reports that he saw nine hundred people in the mosque of Kufa transmitting hadiths from Imam al-Sadiq (a).

Jafari School

Number of people who transmitted hadiths from him (4,000 according to al-Irbili) is greater than the number of hadith transmitters from any other Imam.

In 1378/ 1958-9, Sheikh Mohammed Shaltut, the head of Al-Azhar, recognised the Jafari School of Jurisprudence as a legitimate Islamic school and proclaimed following it permissible.

Imam had a debate with Abu Hanifa in the methodology of Jurisprudence, especially in an analogy. He was a student of Imam in Kufa for 2 years only.

Using Taqiyya

Several hadiths have been transmitted from Imam al-Sadiq which emphasize the importance of Taqiyya, according to some of which Taqiyya is equal to prayer.

Travel to Iraq

The Imam’s mihrab in the mosque of Kufa located on the eastern side of the mosque near the grave of Muslim b. Aqil (a) and also his mihrab in al-Sahla mosque are among his memorials in Iraq.

Students

Some of the important Sunni scholars were among the students of Imam al-Sadiq(a). According to al-Sheikh al-Saduq, Malik b. Anas said that he used to go to Imam al-Sadiq and listen to hadiths that Imam quoted. In his Muwatta, Malik has quoted some hadiths on the authority of Imam al-Sadiq (a).

Ibn Hajar al-Haythami says that Sunni scholars such as Yahya b. Sa’id, Ibn Jurayh, Malik b. Anas, Sufyan b. Uyayna, Sufyan al-Thawri, Abu Hanifa, Shuba b. al-Hajjaj, and Ayub al-Sakhtijani have narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a).

In the view of Sunni Scholars

Imam al-Sadiq (a) has had a high place in the eyes of Sunni scholars. Abu Hanifa, one of the prominent Sunni leaders, considered Imam al-Sadiq (a) as the most knowledgeable Muslim and the greatest Jurist among them. According to Abi l-Hadid, great Sunni scholars such as Abu Hanifa, Ahmad b. Hambal, and al-Shafii were directly or indirectly the students of Imam al-Sadiq (a).

Martyrdom

He was buried in the al-Baqi cemetery beside his father, Imam al-Baqir, his grandfather Imam al-Sajjad, and his uncle Imam al-Hassan.

Malik B. Anas was astonished with the prayers of Imam al-Sadiq (a) as he went on saying with wonder and surprise: “When I was running into Jaffer B. Mohamed al-Sadiq, I never saw him in a situation other than following three: Praying, fasting or reciting Holy Quran”.

Compiled by: Mohamed Raza Jaffer

Alavi Travel

Email: mkjaffer@yahoo.co.uk

Web: www.alavitravel.com

Tel: 00447713622402

15th April, 2021

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