Important Guide of Mecca
5 Rare known facts of Mecca
- Centrality of Mecca: Mecca is a sacred place. It is the centre point of this world.
- Earth emits Radiation: When Neil Armstrong for the first time travelled into space and took pictures of Planet Earth, he said, “Planet Earth was hanging in a very dark area, who hang it?”. There is a dark hanging Sphere known as Earth that Emits Radiation. This short wave Radiation has been known to come from Mecca! When they noticed this Radiation emanating from there, they zoomed in on it and found out it was coming from Ka’ba. They wanted to know the effect this had, not only in Ka’ba but Wordly, for they had found the radiation was infinite! When Mars was visited by Nasa, they took photos of earth and found the Radiation continued well beyond Mars! Upon their findings of the Short Wave length of Radiation they found special characteristics involved. This Radiation was not only Physical, but Celestial, Connected to Ka’ba!
- Zero Magnetism Zone: In the middle of the north pole and south pole, there is an area called ‘Zero Magnetism Area,’ it means is that if we pulled out a compass in the area, then the compass needle will not move at all because of the attraction as much between the two poles. That is why if someone lived in Mecca, then he will live longer, healthier and not much influenced by many forces of gravity. Therefore, is when we are around the Ka’ba, it is as though we are in re-charged by a mysterious energy, and this is in fact that has been scientifically proven.
- Oldest Basalt Rock: There’s a study that proves the black basalt rocks in Mecca are the oldest rocks in the world.
- Black Stone is a metrological body: Other research revealed that the black stone is a stone which is the oldest stone in the world and can also float in water. In a state museum in England, there are three pieces of stone (from the Ka’ba) and the museum also said that the chunks of rocks are not from our solar system.
In one of his saying Holy Prophet (s) said: “Black Stone was sent down from Heaven, the colour is whiter then milk, and the sins of men had blackened it”. (Thirmidhi Vol 1.P.166, HM Saeed)
Present location of Hajre Aswad/ The Ka’ba Stone
Hajre Aswad (the black stone) is located at the east corner of Ka’ba. Pilgrims stop at Hajre Aswad and kiss the stone saying: “BIsmillah-Allahu Akbar and “Allahu Akbar”. There is rarely a time when no one is touching it and glorifying Allah.
MASJID AL HARAM
KA’BA is called Baitullah or the House of Allah. It is the delight of a Muslim. Every Muslim wish to see Ka’ba and touch Hajre Aswad (black stone from Heaven) fixed on the corner wall of Ka’ba. It is the direction of all Muslims from all over the world. More than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually.
Hadith on Building of Ka’ba
When Prophet Abraham left his son and wife Haajar – He raised his hand and said: ‘O our Lord I have made some of my offspring dwell in a valley without cultivation by your sacred House(Ka’ba) in order O our Lord, that they may offer prayer perfectly. So fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and O Allah provide them with fruits, so that they may give thanks. (14:37)
Reconstruction of Ka’ba
Following the attack of Yazid b. Mu’awiya army in 64AH April 683, under the command of Al-Husayn bin Numayr and the firing in the Ka’ba with cannon balls, Abdullah bin Zubair reconstructed the Ka’ba. In this event, firings and stones thrown by Catapults under minded the foundation of the Ka’ba. After the reconstruction of the Ka’ba by Al Hajjaj, the building did not go any reconstructions until 1039/1630 when there was flood in Mecca that took about 4,000 casualties (from the residents and visitors), and it leaked inside al-Masjid al-Haram destroying the walls of Ka’ba. This occurred during the monarchy of Sultan Murad Khan, the Ottoman King. He ordered the reconstruction of Ka’ba. After that the Ka’ba was never reconstructed until in 1377/1957 and then 1417/1996 when it was repaired by the command of Saud b. Abdul Aziz and Fahd b. Abdul Aziz.
It is a place between the Black Stone and the gate of the Ka’ba.
Gate of the Ka’ba:
It is located in the eastern side of the Ka’ba. It is not clear who made the gate of the Ka’ba for the first time, but it was probably the third Tubba’ (a king of Yemen before the first revelation Bi’tha of the Holy Prophet), who made the gate and a key for the Ka’ba.
A stone in front of the gate of the Ka’ba where Ibrahim stood on when he was building Ka’ba.
A gutter on the roof of the Ka’ba flowing towards Hijr. It was first made by Quraysh. It is Holy and when there is rain water flowing from it, its best to ask for your hajjaat and collect this Holy Water from this Holy Mizab.
Part of the Ka’ba subtracted by Quraysh. It is a riser below the Ka’ba wall made of marble, covering the lower part of its wall, in addition to a part made in front of Hajr Ismail. There is no Shadharwan below the gate of the Ka’ba.
- Three pillars with the approximate height of 9 meters, holding the roof of the Ka’ba.
- A dark marble inside on which the Holy Prophet prostrated. Also in Multazam there is a sign showing the place where the Prophet put his stomach and the right cheek in the wall, raised his hands to the sky and cried.
- The middle part is covered by white marbles.
The Ka’ba has four corners or Rukns:
- The Eastern Corner (The Black Corner):
It is near the gate of the Ka’ba almost opposite to the Zam Zam well. It is almost located on the eastern side of the Ka’ba. The Black Stone is located in this corner, and this is why it is called “the black corner”. Tawaf begins from this corner.
- The Northern or al-Iraqi corner:
This corner or Rukn in the direction of Tawaf after the eastern corner. It is almost located in the north. It is called “al-Iraqi” since it is located in the direction of Iraq. It is on the eastern side of Hijr Ismail.
- Western or Al-Shami Corner:
This is a corner or rukn that is located after the Northern in the direction of Tawaf. It is almost located on the western side and it is called al-shami because it is located towards al-sham (Syria). It is located on the western side of Hijr Ismail.
- Southern or al-Yamani corner:
This corner or rukn is located after the western corner in the direction of Tawaf. It is also called Mustajar. It is parallel to the black corner. It is almost located in the south, and it is called al-Yamani since Arabs used to call everything which was located in the south as such (that is, towards Yemen.
Birth of Imam Ali (a)
According to widely accepted account, the place where the Ka’ba was opened for Fatema b. Asad to enter and give birth to Ali b. Abi Talib (a) was the Al-Yamani corner. The crack of that entry is still visible till today. The rulers have tried to hide it but it never goes because it is a miracle by Allah SW which cannot be concealed. Fatima bt. Asad stayed inside the Ka’ba for three days and no one could enter even from the Main door of the Ka’ba. Whole of Mecca was gathered outside to see what is happening. After his birth, Fatema bt. Asad came out and handed over the newly born baby to the Holy Prophet (s) saying that he has not opened his eyes. As soon as the Holy Prophet received the baby he opened his eyes and greeted the Holy Prophet. Holy Prophet replied and asked Imam Ali (a) to recite something. Imam Ali said: do you want me to recite from Bible, Taurah, Zabur or Holy Quran. Then Ima recited from the Surah Mominoon, before the revelation of the Holy Quran. He was born on Rajab 13, 30 years after Am Al fill. He is the only person who was born in the Ka’ba. According to al-Mustadrak ‘ala l-sahihayn’ written in 373/983 written by al-Hakim al-Nishaburi. He collected hadiths that were missing from the two books (Saheeh al Bukhari and Saheeh al Muslim) of Imam Ali (a) being born inside the Ka’ba.
Kiswa (Black embroidered cover of Ka’ba):
Changing of the Kiswa
Kiswa is the cloth that covers the Ka’ba in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The Holy Ka’ba is covered with new Kiswa every year on the 9th of Dhu Al Hijjah, (day of Arafah) which coincides with Hajj. It was a custom started by the Prophet Ismail 4000 years before the origin of Islam.
Cost of making Kiswa:
The present cost of making Kiswa amounts to SAR 20,000,000. The cover is 658m2. the Kiswa is wrapped around the Ka’ba and fixed to its base with copper rings. The manually designed embroidery of the Quranic verses are slowly being aided by computers, thus increasing the speed of production.
The present cost of making the Kiswa amounts to 5.8 million dollars. It is made of 700 kg. of silk and 120 kg of gold and silver threads. It consists of 47 pieces of cloth and each piece is 14 m long and 101 cm wide.
About Zam Zam:
Do you know that Zam Zam is the miracle water that was dug by an angel Jibrael a.s. for Prophet Ismail. The well is preserved till date and feeds millions of pilgrims every year. Many even carry this water back to their homeland and distribute it to their family and friends. Reported by Muslim, 4/1922, al-Tayaalisi (61) added, in a version that he narrated: “and a cure for the sick”, i.e., drinking the water of Zam Zam means that a person does not need to eat, and it will cure his sickness-but this is when he drinks it with faith and sincerity, as proven in the hadeeth of Abu Dharr who stayed in Mecca for a month without any nourishment except Zam Zam water.
Location of Zam Zam:
The well of Zam Zam is located within Wadi Ibrahim alluvium. The well is about 30.5-meter-deep and it was hand-dug and has 2.66-meter internal diameter. The circumference of the opening is about 1.8 meter. The well pumps up to 18.5 litres per second. In 2010, King Abdullah landed a project to build the Zam Zam water treatment and filtration station. The station is located 4.5 km away from Al Masjid al-Haram. 120 tons of Zam Zam water is transported daily to the tanks at al Masjid al-Nabawi I Madina.
Hajj has become Easier
Today the journey of Hajj is not so tough as it was few years back. The journey of Hajj was filled with hardship. The Pilgrims used to cover long distances in buses, ships, on camels and they used to travel long distance on foot too. Today, there has been improvement in water supply, power supply and waste management. The Mataf area have been expanded to accommodate about 75,000 pilgrims.
There are sky scrapers and tall building all around the Ka’ba as hotels with top facilities and fast food outlets for their comfort with super markets for their needs and shopping malls all within easy reach. If you stay in Azizia area durung Hajj each journey will take 2 hours to reach Ka’ba but you will be near Mina area. Taxi drivers will take advantage of the season and prices will be high. Expect traffic delays.
Look at the tents of Mina. The Arabs have retained this culture and although today, the tents of Mina look the same with more facilities. Today the tents are larger in number. There are about 1 lakhs air conditioned tents in Mina to provide temporary accommodation to the pilgrims during Hajj.
There is also a fast train going to Arafat and Mina.
Today about 2-3 million people present themselves before Allah on second day of Hajj. Holy Prophet said: “Hajj is Arafat”. Arafah was the place where Adam and Eve met once again where they were sent down to reside on Earth. Arafah means to “to get acquainted”. Allah has gathered the 2 million Haji’s who have come to serve him in the ground Arafat. Doesn’t this vast crowd reminds us of the Day of Resurrection? Mount of Rahma is 70 m high in the valley of Arafat.
On their way to Mina they stop for the night in the plains of Muzdalefah.
Hira is one of the famous mountains in Mecca where the Prophet (s) has received his first revelation during the month of Ramadhan in 610 CE., resulting its’ another name, Jabal al Noor (the light Mount). The mountain houses a cave of Hira’ where the Holy Prophet(s) used to spend great deal of time every year to engage himself in solitary worshipping before Islam, and it was there that he was honoured with Prophethood. He used to mediate there in solitude for a number of days and nights. His provision for stay for extended period were supplied by Imam Ali (a). He could also hear the message of Allah sent by Jibrael.
Characteristics of the Mountain:
Hira’ is a conical mountain northeast of Mecca and is totally separated from the other mountains surrounding the city. According to historical sources, Mount Hira’ used to be about 6 kms (one farsakh) far from Mecca but now it’s enclosed with residential towers due to city expansion. This mountain overlooks Mina and is alongside Mina-Arafat route.
Its peak is 560 meters above sea level and there is only one way to climb to the top which is distinguished from the other parts. Neither water nor grass could be found in the mountain. The summit is an area of 40 square meters. There is an open area on the top and there is no rock to block the scenery.
Characteristics of the cave
The cave of Hira’ is situated on the peak of the mountain and only 2 meters away from the summit. To reach the cave one has to pass between two close rocks and then the cave appears. The end of the cave is exactly directed to al Masjid al Haram and Ka’ba and the opening of the cave is nearly directed to Bayt al Maqdis (Palestine). Al Masjid Al Haram and its minarets could be seen from the top . the opening is high enough that a man with average height could go through and stand for prayer. It is lighted inside the cave from sunrise to sunset however, it is not heated as outside. Some historians have mistaken Mount Hira for Mount al-Thawr in which the Prophet took refuge during the Hijra (emigration from Mecca to Madina).
Abd al Mutalib (the grandfather of the Prophet) was the first one to choose this cave for solitary worshipping (tahannuth) to reflect on past. From past till now, Muslims would go to visit Hira’ cave and it’s been said that Dua (prayers) will be answered there. Also according to some faqihs (Jurists) visiting the cave is considered as a mustahab (recommended) action during the Hajj.
Mount Thawr is a famous mountain in Mecca. The fame of this mountain is because of the cave where the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr, at the beginning of the Hijra (the emigration) in Laylat al Mabit sought shelter there from the polytheists. Laylat al Mabit is the title of the night in which Imam Ali (a) slept in the bed of the Holy Prophet (s) because polytheists of Quraysh had plotted to assassinate him. The prophet (s) emigrated from Mecca to Madina in the night, and Imam Ali (a) slept in his bed, so the assassins would not notice his journey. It is narrated in the Quran. Polytheists went to the door of the cave, but thanks to the divine assistance, they could not find the Prophet.
Mount Thawr is located south of Mecca and Masjid al-Haram, on road to Yemen. Some have recorded the name of this mountain as Athal or Thawr. Further, some historians have recorded it as Abu Thawr which does not look to be a correct name. It is not unlikely that this naming, meaning “cow” has been because it is like a cow heading towards south of Mecca!
The distance has been mentioned one parsang (about 5.6 km) 2-3 miles and two hour walk from Mecca. Currently the distance of Mount Thawr to Masjid Haram is 3 to 4 km.
Cave of Thawr:
Cave of Thawr is located on top of mount Thawr with a view over surrounding mountains. It is in the form of a rock or a hallowed rock and looks like an upside down boat. It’s altitude from the ground is a little more than 500 meters. Climbing up to the cave is very difficult and requires making a lot of efforts. Cave of Thawr has two entrances, one in the west which is very narrow and almost at the bottom of the cave, entering from which is very difficult, and another is on the east which is somehow wider and it is believed that it has been made by a miracle from God after the prophet entered the cave.
Length of the cave is about 18 hand spans (about 4 meters) and its width in the middle is 11 hand spans near to 2.5 cubic meters. Some historians have mistaken the cave of Thawr, where the Prophet (s) took refuge with the cave of Hira’ where first revelation appeared for him.
For the blessing of the Prophet (s) stay in this cave, several miracles happened such as spinning of a spider’s net in the front of the cave, nestling of two wild pigeons and in a report growing of a tree.
Polytheists who were searching for the Prophet came up to the opening of the cave of Thawr, but God stopped them from entering it. This way Quraysh who saw the spider’s net and the eggs of the pigeons, assumed that the cave must have been an isolated one. Because, had anyone entered it before, the spider’s net would have been cut apart, the eggs of pigeons would have been broken and the pigeons would have not been sitting there with ease.
Mount of Thawr has been regarded as blessed by Muslims after the three days staying of the Prophet there and has always been a place of visiting for Hajj pilgrims.
Mosque of the Jinn:
The mosque of the Jinn is a mosque in Mecca, located near Jannatul Mualla. It is also known as the mosque of allegiance and the mosque of Guards, because the city’s guards would petrol up to that point.
The mosque is built at the place where a group of Jinn are said to have gathered one night to hear the recitation of a portion of the Quran by Holy Prophet. Holy Prophet met there with these Jinn leaders and accepted their embrace of Islam and their Bayah (oath of allegiance) to him. The incident is mentioned in chapter al-Jinn of the Quran. The mosque is considered one of the oldest in Mecca and is one of the most important mosques visited in the city.
Masjid e Taneem:
Masjid e Taneem is a mosque in the Al-Hil area about five miles away from the Holy Ka’ba, in Taneem, which is near Mecca, it is boundary of Haram therefore, pilgrims can put on Ihram. This is not the Miqat so it is not compulsory to wear Ihram here. Shias wear Ihram here after Hajj to perform Umra mufrida. This mosque is also known as Masjid e Ayesha since Holy Prophet wife Ayesha had put her Ihram (restriction on pilgrimage) from this place once.
This is quite a big mosque with facilities for baths, ablution and changing, available for pilgrims and those who come to offer regular prayers.
AL-MA’LAT CEMETERY- JANNATUL MUALLA
Al-Ma’lat cemetery is the oldest cemetery in Mecca which is also known as Al-Hajun cemetery, al-Mualla cemetery and Abu Talib cemetery among Iranians. It is mostly known as Banu Hashim cemetery in recent centuries.
Abd al Muttalib was the grandfather of Holy Prophet (s). He set the blood money for killing a man at one hundred camels, and God also applied this in Islam. The Quraysh did not know how many times they must circumambulate (Tawaf) the Ka’ba, Abd al Muttalib set this to seven and God applied these seven times Tawaf to Islam as well.
Abu Yaqubi wrote: He established traditions that the Prophet (s) acted upon and verses were revealed for it, and they were:
Loyalty to pledges, a hundred camels for blood money, illegalized marriage with Maharim, refraining from entering a house from its roof, amputation of a thief hand, disapproved of killing daughters, the prohibition of wine, the prohibition of adultery, and appointing a punishment for it, lottery, prohibition of circumumbulating the Ka’ba naked, respect for guests, supplying Hajj expenses with legitimate money, respect for Haram months, avoid Ostenation and hypocrisy.
Demise: It is believed that the Prophet was eight years old when Abd al Muttalib passed away at the age of eighty-two or hundred and eight.
Abd al Muttalib had ten sons: Harith, Abd Allah, Al-Zubayr, Abu Talib, Hamza, Miqwam, Abbas, Dirar, Quthum, Abu Lahab who was also called abd al Uzza, Ghaydaq.
He had six daughters: Atika, Safiyya, Umama, Barra, Arwa, Umm Hakim (al Bayda).
ABD ALLAH B.ABD AL MUTTALIB (FATHER OF HOLY PROPHET):
Place of Birth: Mecca
Burial Place: Dar al Nabigha
Death: Few months after the Prophet birth.
Abd Allah b. Abd Al Muttalib, is the father of the Holy Prophet (s), as the historians had said: in the vow of Abdul Muttalib sacrifice one of his sons for Allah, his name was drawn, but at last 100 camels were slaughtered in his place. Unlike Sunni scholars, most of the Shia scholars believe that he was a monotheist.
Abd Manaf b. Abd al Muttalib b. Hashim (b. circa 536 CE-D. 4 BH/619) known as Abu Talib, the father of Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and the uncle of Holy Prophet (s) was among the nobles of Mecca and the Tribe of Banu Hashim. After Abd al Muttalib, his father, passed away, he took the guardianship of Holy Prophet, his nephew and greatly supported him during his mission.
The faith of Abu Talib has been a subject of controversy between Shia and Sunni scholars. There is historical and hadith evidence supporting that Abu Talib was a Muslim. In the poems of Abu Talib, there are many verses which show his belief in Islam and the Prophethood of the Prophet. He is buried beside his father in Al-Hajun cemetery or Jannat ul Mualla.
Wife and children:
Abu Talib had four sons… His sons in the order of age were Talib, Aqeel, Jafar, and Ali. He also had two daughters, Umm Hani (Fakhita) and Jumana. Some sources mention an additional daughter named Rayta. The mother of all of his children was Fatima bt. Asad. It is also reported that he had another child called Tulayq, whose mother was named Alla.
Social position, Occupation and traits:
Abu Talib had two jobs which included serving Hajj pilgrims and giving water to them in Mecca. He was a merchant and he traded perfume and wheat.
According to narration from Imam Ali (a) and the reports of historians, although Abu Talib was a needy person, he was a nobleman of Quraysh and dear to them. He was known for his sheer grandeur and wisdom. Regarding his generosity, it is said that, on the day he gave food to the needy, no one else in Quraysh gave food. He was the first person who initiated the rule of swearing the guardians of the murdered in pre Islam and later Islam endorsed it. Following his father’s conduct, he also had forbidden wine to himself.
Guardianship of the Prophet:
When Abdul Muttalib passed away, Abu Talib always gave priority to Holy Prophet over himself and his own family. He paid special attention to him and showed more love to him than his own children. He provided him with best of food and laid him in a bed next to his and always tried to take him along with himself.
It is quoted from the Prophet “Quraysh feared me until Abu Talib was alive”. Al shaykh al-Mufid narrated that when Abu Talib passed away, Jibrael came to the Prophet and told him, “Leave Mecca since you have no support in this city. The Prophet called that year “Am al Huzn” year of sorrow.
KHADIJA BINT KHUWAYLID:
Place of birth: Mecca
Death: Ramadhan 10, 4 BH/may 1,619 Al Hajun cemetery-Jannatul Mualla.
Well known as: Umm al-Mumineen
Khadija bt. Khuwaylid (known as Khadija al Kubra and umm al Mumineen (the mother of believers), was the first wife of Prophet Mohammed (s) and the mother of Lady Fatima(a). she married Prophet Mohammed (s) 15 years before Bi’tha (595-96CE) and was the first woman who converted to Islam. Khadija (a) dedicated her wealth for expansion of Islam. She was the richest and successful lady in whole Arab peninsula at her time. Holy Prophet did not choose another wife during his marital life with Khadija (a). During her life and after her demise, the Prophet (s) always praised Khadija (a). She passed away in the year ten after Bi’tha (4BH) in Mecca. She is buried in al-Ma’lat Cemetery in the Mount al-Hajun.
She was a wealthy merchant who worked in Mudharaba. She employed other people to work for her and she gained some parts of its profit. She was middle class in lineage, but she was a successful and noble lady. Also, al-Baladhuri said: “Al-Waqidi stated that Khadija (a) had ancestral nobility and she was a successful merchant”
Before Marrying Holy Prophet:
Shia scholars believe, Khadija did not marry anyone before Holy Prophet. According to researchers, children attributed to Khadija (a) both were the children of Hala, Khadija’s sister. After the husband of Hala passed away, she took the responsibility of Hala and her children.
Marriage with Holy Prophet(s):
As Ibn Kathir quoted from Ibn Ishaq, when Khadija(a) became familiar with honesty, trustworthiness and ethical characteristics of Holy Prophet (s), she entrusted him her wealth. Then after Holy Prophet (s) came from a commercial travel from Syria, Maysara (Khadija’s slave) reported the characteristics of Holy Prophet (s) to Khadija (a). Afterwards, she proposed marriage to Holy Prophet(s).
Hazrat Abu Talib was consulted and he also agreed and he recited the Nikah of the Holy Prophet by praising god in his Khutba(rituals) of Nikah.
If he was not a Muslim, how can he recite the Nikah ceremony?
Some historians believe that Lady Fatima (a) was the only daughter of the Prophet Mohammed (s) and Khadija(a) and the other daughters were the adopted children.
Role in Islam:
After the financial help from Khadija al Kubra(a) Holy Prophet (s) became financially privileged. As Allah mentioned the gift given to Prophet Mohammed: “Allah found you needy and made you prosperous”. Holy Prophet applied her wealth in paying debtor’s debts, and an orphans and the poor.
When Mecca boycotted Banu Hashim, the wealth of Khadija al Kubra (a) helped Banu Hashim. According to narration: “Abu Talib and Khadija (a) dedicated all their wealth for protecting Islam and helping the boycotted Muslims”. Prophet always mentioned her dedication and appreciated her generosity.
Jabir b. Abd Allah al-Ansari has narrated a hadith from Holy Prophet (s) which mentioned the best of women: Khadija (a) Lady Fatima (a), Maryam (a), and Asiya (a). According to the sources Khadija was the best and the most honest companion and consultant of Holy Prophet (s). Khadija al Kubra (a) had a high status in Holy Prophet’s perspective. Years after her demise, Holy Prophet (s) always remembered her as the special one in his life. Ibn al Jawzi said: Khadija (a) was known for her knowledge, fairness, progress, and her desire for spirituality and perfection. Her unlimited spiritual wealth was more significant than her impressive wealth. Although different notable and wealthy man of Quraysh asked Khadija for marriage, she rejected them and chose Holy Prophet (s) to guarantee her salvation in the Hereafter and rewards in Paradise. She was the first person who converted to Islam, who accepted his Prophethood and performed prayer with Prophet (s).
Some sources mentioned Khadija passed away after Abu Talib had passed away. Ibn Sa’d believed Khadija passed away 35 days after the demise of Abu Talib. Other sources mentioned Khadija passed away in Ramadhan on 10years after Bi’tha (may6th). Due to the demise of Holy Prophet ‘s Uncle, Abu Talib and his wife, Lady Khadija(a) this year was called Am al Huzn (the year of sorrow and grief).
According to Islamic narrations, at first Prophet Mohammed (s) enshrouded her with his own cloak and then with another cloak from Paradise. Then he slept in the grave before the body of Khadija and prayer for her. Then he buried her in Al-Ma’lat Cemetery, on the slopes of Mount al-Hajun.
Holy Prophet (s) used to remember her all the time throughout his lifetime. He used to send gift to Khadija’s friends after her death. Hazrat Ayesha asked him why do you remember her so much when Allah has given you younger wives? He replied Khadija trusted me in the beginning of my Prophethood when all others avoided me. She spent all her entire wealth on me and for Islam. She helped me in each difficulties of the initial part of Islam and in Shoeb e Abu Talib at time of Boycott of 3 years. How can I forget her and her favours?
Yasir b. Amir al-Ansari:
Yasir b. Amir al-Ansari, the Prophet’s companion, Sumayya’s husband, Ammar’s father, was one of the first people who joined Islam, and was the first martyr in Islam who was killed by Pagan’s tortures. He was from Yemen of Madhij clan from Anas tribe.
Marriage to Sumayya:
Yasir made a pact with Abu Hudhaifa, the head of Banu Makhzum tribe, and joined this clan. Abu Hudhaifa married Yasir with his own bond women called Sumayya. They had a son called Ammar.
Conversion to Islam:
The Yasir’s family among the first Muslims. It has been said that this family visited the Prophet into the fifth year of his Bi’tha, (his first revelation of Prophecy) in Arqam b. Abi Arqam’s house, and converted to Islam.
Torture by Pagans:
When the Yasir’s family converted to Islam, it was very hard for the Bani Makhzum tribe to tolerate this, since they were Bani Makhzum’s slaves. Abu Jahl who was Hudhaifa’s nephew and was very hostile towards Islam, forced the Yasir’s family to abandon Islam by variety of tortures. However, despite all the physical and physical sufferings and their senility, Yasir and Sumayya never retreated from their beliefs. The pagans tortured them by different instruments such as hot irons, whips, drowning in polluted water, steel armours (with their chains penetrating into their bodies), and burning them under the hot sun. Though Yasir was old, he resisted all the pressures and tortures, and he was finally martyred as a result of these tortures.
SUMAYYA BT. KHABBAT:
Sumayya was the daughter of Khabbat and the female servant of Abu Hudhaifa b. al-Mughira- the chief of Banu Makhzum. Her husband was Yasir b. Amir al-Ansari from Yemen. Her son was Ammar Yasir who entered to Islam along with his parents.
Sympathy of the Holy Prophet with Yasir and Sumayya:
The Holy Prophet (s) came to their house showing his sympathy, and said: “Patience! O, the family of Yasir! Indeed, you are promised to enter Heaven. He also turned his face toward the sky and said: “OAllah! Forgive the family of Yasir. I did all I could for them”.
Finally, Yasir was martyred under tortures. His wife Sumayya-who was an elderly woman at that time, continued to resist. After the martyrdom of Yasir, Abu Jahl always insulted her. Ravaged by anger, Abu Jahl ordered to fasten each of her legs to a camel and then they separated camels from each other. Finally, Abu Jahl lost his patience and hit her on the stomach by a dagger or spear and ripped her stomach. Thus this virtuous lady was martyred.
Although the youth of Quraysh, who saw the scene of her torture, strived for putting out the light of Islam, they rescued Ammar from Abu Jahl’s tortures so that he can bury his parents.
Hijra to Madina is the emigration of the Prophet and Muslims from Mecca to Madina which was occurred 13 years after Bi’tha of the Prophet (s) (b22CE). The year of the event became the beginning of the Islamic calendar. The main reason of the emigration of Muslims to Yathrib was the harassment and the pressure of the Meccan polytheists. One of the clauses of the allegiance of the people of Yathrib to the Prophet (s) (pledge of Aqaba), was to support Meccan Muslims if they emigrate to Yathrib. After Hijra, Yathrib was named “Madinat al-Rasul”, city of the Prophet (S) in short Madina.
After the pledge of al-Aqaba and when Quraysh knew the pledge of Aus and Khazraj with the Prophet (S) their security with the Muslims became harsher and they were harassing them harder, to the extent that living in Mecca became impossible to Muslims. So they asked the Prophet (s) permission to emigrate from Mecca. The Holy Prophet (s) told them to go to their supporter brothers (Ansar) in Yathrib and said: “Allah has arranged some brothers and a safe place for you”. Muslims began to emigrate to Yathrib in groups, and the prophet remained in Mecca waiting for permission of God for his Hijra.
Decision of the Quraysh to kill the Prophet:
They decided to choose one from each tribe and they kill the Prophet (s) altogether, so Banu Hashim could not fight all of the tribes. So, on a Thursday night of Rabi 1, 1 of the year 14 after Bi’tha/ Sep. 13,622, the Holy Prophet left Mecca, and Imam Ali (a) slept in the bed of the Prophet (s) so that the assassins will not realize the emigration of the Prophet and not chase him, the night is called Laylat al Mabit (night of sleeping).
The verse 207 of Quran chapter 2 is revealed about the sacrifice of Imam Ali a.s. for saving the life of Prophet.
“And among the people is he who sells his soul (life) seeking the pleasure of Allah, and Allah is most Kind to (His) Servants”. Quran 2:207.
Role of Ali (a):
The next night after the beginning of the Hijra of the Prophet (s) Imam Ali (a) with Hind b. Abi Hala went to Al-Thawr cave. Holy Prophet told Imam Ali (a) to buy two camels for them to go to Yathrib. Abu Bakr said: I have prepared two camels. Holy Prophet (s) said: “ I will not accept them unless I pay their price, then the Prophet told Ali (a) to pay the price of the camels to Abu Bakr.
Then the Prophet (s) told Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib to restore all of the entrusted goods (amanaat) to their owners. Quraysh knew the Prophet as Amin (trustworthy) and entrusted him with their properties. Also people who entered Mecca for Hajj entrusted their belonging s to him. This was so, even after the Bi’tha of the Prophet and even his worst enemies would entrust him with their wealth. The Holy Prophet told his cousin Imam Ali (a) announce in Abtah, in morning and evening, that everyone who has something entrusted to Mohammed (s) come and get it. “They will not harm you, return the entrusted goods openly, I entrust you with my daughter (Syeda Fatima) who later on became his wife, and entrust both of you to Allah, and He is your guardian”, said the Prophet (s).
Hijra of Imam Ali (a):
The Prophet told Ali (a) to buy camels for himself and “Fawatim” (Lady Fatima (a), Fatima Bint Asad (a) (mother of Imam Ali (a), Fatima bint al-Zubayr) and others from Banu Hashim who want to emigrate to Yathrib, and said: “Be prepared to emigrate toward Allah and his Prophet (s), and after you receive my letter move without delay”. After three days Imam Ali(a) emigrated to Yathrib with Fawatim. Some people of Quraysh tried to stop his emigration, he faced them with his sword and said: “every one of you who wants his flesh to be cut and his blood to be shed, comes near me”. They chose not to fight and returned back.
Staying in Quba:
The Prophet (s) reached Quba (one of the sectors of Yathrib) at the noon of Rabi 1 12/ Oct 8,622. The Prophet stayed there for nearly 10 days in the place Banu Amr b. Awf. Ali (a) joined the Prophet after 3 days.
Compiled by: Mohamed Raza Jaffer
Alavi Travel UK
9th April, 2021.